As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on September 16, 2022

Registration No. 333-

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM S-3

 

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 

TMC the metals company Inc.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

         
British Columbia, Canada   1000   Not Applicable
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
  (Primary Standard Industrial
Classification Code Number)
  (I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)

 

595 Howe Street, 10th Floor

Vancouver, British Columbia

V6C 2T5

Telephone: (574) 252-9333

(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)

 

Cogency Global Inc.

122 East 42nd Street, 18th Floor

New York, NY 10168

Telephone: (800) 221-0102

(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)

 

Copies to:

 

Michael L. Fantozzi, Esq.

Daniel T. Kajunski, Esq.

Mintz, Levin, Cohn, Ferris,

Glovsky and Popeo, P.C.

One Financial Center

Boston, Massachusetts 02111

Telephone: (617) 542-6000

 

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: From time to time after the effective date of this registration statement.

 

If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box: ¨

 

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box: x

 

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ¨

 

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ¨

 

If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box. ¨

 

If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box. ¨

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer ¨   Accelerated filer ¨
Non-accelerated filer x   Smaller reporting company x
      Emerging growth company x

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act. ¨

 

THE REGISTRANT HEREBY AMENDS THIS REGISTRATION STATEMENT ON SUCH DATE OR DATES AS MAY BE NECESSARY TO DELAY ITS EFFECTIVE DATE UNTIL THE REGISTRANT SHALL FILE A FURTHER AMENDMENT WHICH SPECIFICALLY STATES THAT THIS REGISTRATION STATEMENT SHALL THEREAFTER BECOME EFFECTIVE IN ACCORDANCE WITH SECTION 8(a) OF THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933, AS AMENDED, OR UNTIL THE REGISTRATION STATEMENT SHALL BECOME EFFECTIVE ON SUCH DATE AS THE SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION, ACTING PURSUANT TO SAID SECTION 8(a), MAY DETERMINE.

 

 

 

 

 

EXPLANATORY NOTE

 

This registration statement contains a base prospectus which covers both (a) the offering, issuance and sale by us of up to a maximum aggregate offering price of $100,000,000 of our common shares, preferred shares, debt securities, warrants and/or units from time to time in one or more offerings, and (b) the offering and sale by the selling shareholders of up to a maximum of 38,266,180 common shares, without par value, of TMC the metals company Inc.

 

The base prospectus immediately follows this explanatory note. The specific terms of any securities to be offered by us pursuant to the base prospectus will be specified in a prospectus supplement to the base prospectus, if required.

 

 

 

 

The information in this preliminary prospectus is not complete and may be changed. Neither we nor the selling shareholders may sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission becomes effective. This preliminary prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and it is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any state or other jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED SEPTEMBER 16, 2022

 

PRELIMINARY PROSPECTUS

 

 

TMC THE METALS COMPANY INC.

 

$100 MILLION OF

COMMON SHARES

PREFERRED SHARES

DEBT SECURITIES

WARRANTS

UNITS

 

AND

 

38,266,180 COMMON SHARES

OFFERED BY SELLING SHAREHOLDERS

 

We may offer and sell securities from time to time in one or more offerings of up to $100 million in aggregate offering price. This prospectus describes the general terms of these securities and the general manner in which these securities will be offered by us. We will provide you with the specific terms of any offering in one or more supplements to this prospectus. The prospectus supplements will also describe the specific manner in which these securities will be offered and may also supplement, update or amend information contained in this document. You should read this prospectus and any prospectus supplement, as well as any documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus or any prospectus supplement, carefully before you invest.

 

In addition, the selling shareholders identified in this prospectus may from time to time sell up to 38,266,180 of our common shares, without par value, or the Common Shares. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale, if any, of Common Shares by the selling shareholders. Unless otherwise set forth in a prospectus supplement, if required, the selling shareholders will pay any underwriting discounts and commissions and transfer taxes incurred by the selling shareholders in disposing of the Common Shares.

 

Our securities may be sold directly by us to you, through agents designated from time to time or to or through underwriters or dealers. For additional information on the methods of sale, you should refer to the section entitled “Plan of Distribution” in this prospectus and in the applicable prospectus supplement. If any underwriters or agents are involved in the sale of our securities with respect to which this prospectus is being delivered, the names of such underwriters or agents and any applicable fees, commissions or discounts and over-allotment and other options to purchase additional securities will be set forth in a prospectus supplement. The price to the public of such securities and the net proceeds that we expect to receive from such sale will also be set forth in a prospectus supplement.

 

Our Common Shares are listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “TMC”. On September 15, 2022, the last reported sale price of our Common Shares was $1.04 per share. We also have warrants to purchase Common Shares listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “TMCWW”. On September 15, 2022, the last reported sale price of these public warrants to purchase Common Shares was $0.14. The applicable prospectus supplement will contain information, where applicable, as to any other listing, if any, on The Nasdaq Stock Market or any securities market or other securities exchange of the securities covered by the prospectus supplement. Prospective purchasers of our securities are urged to obtain current information as to the market prices of our securities, where applicable.

 

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. See “Risk Factors” included in any accompanying prospectus supplement and in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus for a discussion of the factors you should carefully consider before deciding to purchase these securities.

 

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

The date of this prospectus is                          , 2022.

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS 1
PROSPECTUS SUMMARY 2
RISK FACTORS 5
SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS 6
USE OF PROCEEDS 8
SELLING SHAREHOLDERS 9
PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION 12
DESCRIPTION OF COMMON SHARES AND SPECIAL SHARES 16
DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED SHARES 19
DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES 20
DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS 26
DESCRIPTION OF UNITS 31
CERTAIN IMPORTANT PROVISIONS OF THE NOTICE OF ARTICLES AND ARTICLES AND THE BCBCA 32
OWNERSHIP AND EXCHANGE CONTROLS 35
MATERIAL U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS 37
MATERIAL CANADIAN FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS 44
LEGAL MATTERS 46
EXPERTS 46
WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION 46
INCORPORATION OF DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE 46

 

 

 

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

 

This prospectus is part of a registration statement on Form S-3 that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, using a shelf registration process. Using this process, we may, from time to time, sell any securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings up to a total dollar amount of $100,000,000. This prospectus provides a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we sell any securities under this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will contain more specific information about the terms of the securities being offered and the specific manner in which they will be offered.

 

This prospectus does not contain all of the information included in the registration statement. For a more complete understanding of the offering of the securities, you should refer to the registration statement, including its exhibits. The prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. However, no prospectus supplement will offer a security that is not registered and described in this prospectus at the time of its effectiveness. This prospectus, together with the applicable prospectus supplements and the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus, includes all material information relating to the offering of securities under this prospectus. You should carefully read this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement, the information and documents incorporated herein by reference and the additional information under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information” before making an investment decision.

 

Information about the selling shareholders may change over time. When the selling shareholders sell our Common Shares under this prospectus, we will, if necessary and required by law, provide a prospectus supplement that will contain specific information about the terms of that offering.

 

You should rely only on the information we have provided or incorporated by reference in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with information different from that contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. No dealer, salesperson or other person is authorized to give any information or to represent anything not contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. You must not rely on any unauthorized information or representation. This prospectus is an offer to sell only the securities offered hereby, but only under circumstances and in jurisdictions where it is lawful to do so. You should assume that the information in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement is accurate only as of the date on the front of the document and that any information we have incorporated herein by reference is accurate only as of the date of the document incorporated by reference, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or any sale of a security.

 

We further note that the representations, warranties and covenants made by us in any agreement that is filed as an exhibit to any document that is incorporated by reference in this prospectus were made solely for the benefit of the parties to such agreement, including, in some cases, for the purpose of allocating risk among the parties to such agreements, and should not be deemed to be a representation, warranty or covenant to you. Moreover, such representations, warranties or covenants were accurate only as of the date when made. Accordingly, such representations, warranties and covenants should not be relied on as accurately representing the current state of our affairs.

 

This prospectus may not be used to consummate sales of our securities by us, unless it is accompanied by a prospectus supplement. To the extent there are inconsistencies between any prospectus supplement, this prospectus and any documents incorporated by reference, the document with the most recent date will control.

 

Unless the context otherwise requires, “the Company,” “we,” “us,” “our” and similar terms refer to TMC the metals company Inc. and our subsidiaries.

 

For investors outside the United States: We have not done anything that would permit these offerings or possession or distribution of this prospectus in any jurisdiction where action for that purpose is required, other than in the United States. You are required to inform yourselves about and to observe any restrictions relating to this offering and the distribution of this prospectus.

 

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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

 

The following is a summary of what we believe to be the most important aspects of our business and the offering of our securities under this prospectus. We urge you to read this entire prospectus, including the more detailed consolidated financial statements, notes to the consolidated financial statements and other information incorporated by reference from our other filings with the SEC or included in any applicable prospectus supplement. Investing in our securities involves risks. Therefore, carefully consider the risk factors set forth in any prospectus supplements and in our most recent annual, quarterly and other filings with the SEC, as well as other information in this prospectus and any prospectus supplements and the documents incorporated by reference herein or therein, before purchasing our securities. Each of the risk factors could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition, as well as adversely affect the value of an investment in our securities.

 

About TMC the metals company Inc.

 

We are a deep-sea minerals exploration company focused on the collection and processing of polymetallic nodules found on the seafloor in international waters of the Clarion Clipperton Zone, or the CCZ, about 1,300 nautical miles south-west of San Diego, California. The CCZ is a geological submarine fracture zone of abyssal plains and other formations in the Eastern Pacific Ocean, with a length of around 7,240 km (4,500 miles) that spans approximately 4,500,000 square kilometers (1,700,000 sq. mi). Polymetallic nodules are discrete rocks that sit unattached to the seafloor, occur in significant quantities in the CCZ and have high concentrations of nickel, manganese, cobalt and copper in a single rock.

 

These four metals contained in the polymetallic nodules are critical for the transition to clean energy. Our resource definition work to date shows that nodules in our contract areas represent the world’s largest estimated undeveloped source of critical battery metals. If we are able to collect polymetallic nodules from the seafloor on a commercial scale, we plan to use such nodules to produce three types of metal products: (i) feedstock for battery cathode precursors (nickel-copper-cobalt matte and/or nickel and cobalt sulfates) for electric vehicles, or EVs, and renewable energy storage markets, (ii) nickel-copper-cobalt matte and/or copper cathode for EV wiring, clean energy transmission and other applications and (iii) manganese silicate for manganese alloy production required for steel production. Our mission is to build a carefully managed shared stock of metal, which we refer to as a metals common, that can be used, recovered and reused for generations to come. Significant quantities of newly mined metal are required because existing metal stocks are insufficient to meet rapidly rising demand.

 

Exploration and exploitation of seabed minerals in international waters is regulated by the International Seabed Authority, or the ISA, an intergovernmental organization established pursuant to the 1994 Agreement Relating to the Implementation of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, or UNCLOS. The ISA grants contracts to sovereign states or to private contractors who are sponsored by a sovereign state. The ISA requires that a contractor must obtain and maintain sponsorship by a host nation that is a member of the ISA and signatory to UNCLOS and such nation must maintain effective supervision and regulatory control over such sponsored contractor. The ISA has issued a total of 19 polymetallic nodule exploration contracts covering approximately 1.28 million km2, or 0.4% of the global seafloor, 17 of which are in the CCZ. We hold exclusive exploration and commercial rights to three of the 17 polymetallic nodule contract areas in the CCZ through our subsidiaries Nauru Ocean Resources Inc., or NORI, and Tonga Offshore Mining Limited, or TOML, sponsored by the Republic of Nauru and the Kingdom of Tonga, respectively, and exclusive commercial rights through our subsidiary, DeepGreen Engineering Pte. Ltd.’s, arrangement with Marawa Research and Exploration Limited, a company owned and sponsored by the Republic of Kiribati.

 

We have key strategic alliances with (i) Allseas Group S.A., a leading global offshore contractor, which is developing a pilot collection system, which is expected to be modified into an initial smaller scale commercial production system and serve as the basis for the design of a full-scale commercial production system and (ii) Glencore International AG, or Glencore, which holds offtake rights on 50% of the NORI nickel and copper production. In addition, we have worked with an engineering firm Hatch Ltd. and consultants Kingston Process Metallurgy Inc. to develop a near-zero solid waste flowsheet. The pyrometallurgical stages of the flowsheet were tested as part of our pilot plant program at FLSmidth & Co. A/S’s and XPS Solutions’ (a Glencore subsidiary) facilities and bench-scale hydrometallurgical refining stages are being carried out at SGS SA. The near-zero solid waste flowsheet is in the process design that is expected to serve as the basis for our onshore processing facilities. In March 2022, we entered into a non-binding memorandum of understanding with Epsilon Carbon Pvt, LTD., or Epsilon Carbon, in which Epsilon Carbon expressed its intent to conduct pre-feasibility work to potentially finance, engineer, permit, construct and operate a commercial polymetallic nodule processing plant in India.

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We are currently focused on applying for our first exploitation contract from the ISA on the NORI Area D contract area with the goal of potentially starting commercial production in 2024. To reach our objective and initiate commercial production in 2024, we are: (i) defining our resource and project economics, (ii) developing an offshore nodule collection system, (iii) assessing the environmental, social and governance (ESG) impacts of offshore nodule collection, and (iv) developing onshore technology to process collected polymetallic nodules into a manganese silicate product, and an intermediate nickel-copper-cobalt matte product and/or end-products like nickel and cobalt sulfates, and copper cathode. We will need additional funding to reach our expected commercial production in 2024.

 

We are still in the exploration phase and have not yet declared mineral reserves. We have yet to obtain exploitation contracts from the ISA to commence commercial scale polymetallic nodule collection in the CCZ and have yet to obtain the applicable environmental permits and other permits required to build and operate commercial scale polymetallic nodule processing and refining plants on land.

 

Cautionary Statements Regarding the NORI Initial Assessment and TOML Mineral Resource Statement

 

We have estimated the size and quality of our resource in the NORI and TOML contracted areas in our SEC Regulation S-K (subpart 1300), referred to herein as the SEC Mining Rules, compliant Technical Report Summary - Initial Assessment, of the NORI Property, Clarion-Clipperton Zone, Pacific Ocean dated March 17, 2021, or the NORI Initial Assessment, and Technical Report Summary - TOML Mineral Resource, Clarion-Clipperton Zone, Pacific Ocean dated March 26, 2021, or the TOML Mineral Resource Statement, respectively, prepared by AMC Consultants Ltd., or AMC, each of which is filed as an exhibit to the registration statement to which this prospectus forms a part. We plan to continue to refine our resource estimate for the NORI and TOML areas and better resolve the project economics. The initial assessment included in the NORI Initial Assessment Report is a conceptual study of the potential viability of mineral resources in NORI Area D. This initial assessment indicates that development of the mineral resource in NORI Area D is potentially technically and economically viable; however, due to the preliminary nature of project planning and design, and the untested nature of the specific seafloor production systems at a commercial scale, economic viability has not yet been demonstrated.

 

The NORI Initial Assessment and TOML Mineral Resource Statement do not include the conversion of mineral resources to mineral reserves.

 

As used in this prospectus or in the applicable report summary, the terms “mineral resource,” “measured mineral resource,” “indicated mineral resource” and “inferred mineral resource”, as applicable, are defined and used in accordance with the SEC Mining Rules.

 

You are specifically cautioned not to assume that any part or all of the mineral deposits in these categories will ever be converted into mineral reserves, as defined by the SEC. You are also cautioned that mineral resources do not have demonstrated economic value. Information concerning our mineral properties in the NORI and TOML Technical Report Summaries and in this prospectus includes information that has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the SEC Mining Rules. Under SEC standards, mineralization, such as mineral resources, may not be classified as a “reserve” unless the determination has been made that the mineralization would be economically and legally produced or extracted at the time of the reserve determination. Inferred mineral resources have a high degree of uncertainty as to their existence and to whether they can be economically or legally commercialized. Under the SEC Mining Rules, estimates of inferred mineral resources may not form the basis of an economic analysis. It cannot be assumed that all or any part of an inferred mineral resource will ever be upgraded to a higher category. A significant amount of exploration must be completed in order to determine whether an inferred mineral resource may be upgraded to a higher category. Therefore, you are cautioned not to assume that all or any part of an inferred mineral resource exists, that it can be economically or legally commercialized, or that it will ever be upgraded to a higher category. Approximately 97% of the NORI Area D resource is categorized as measured or indicated.

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Likewise, you are cautioned not to assume that all or any part of measured or indicated mineral resources will ever be upgraded to mineral reserves.

 

Additional Information

 

For additional information related to our business and operations, please refer to the reports incorporated herein by reference, as described under the caption “Incorporation of Documents by Reference” on page 46 of this prospectus.

 

Our Corporate Information

 

The Company was originally known as Sustainable Opportunities Acquisition Corp., or SOAC. On September 9, 2021, we consummated a business combination, or the Business Combination, pursuant to the terms of the business combination agreement dated as of March 4, 2021 by and among SOAC, 1291924 B.C. Unlimited Liability Company, an unlimited liability company existing under the laws of British Columbia, Canada, and DeepGreen Metals Inc., a company existing under the laws of British Columbia, Canada, or DeepGreen. In connection with the Business Combination, SOAC changed its name to “TMC the metals company Inc.” Our principal executive offices are located at 595 Howe Street, 10th Floor, Vancouver, British Columbia V6C 2T5, and our telephone number is (574) 252-9333. Our website address is www.metals.co. The information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not and shall not be deemed to be part of this prospectus. We have included our website address in this prospectus solely as an inactive textual reference. Investors should not rely on any such information in deciding whether to purchase our Common Shares or other securities.

 

All service marks, trademarks and trade names appearing in this prospectus are the property of their respective owners. We do not intend our use or display of other companies’ trade names, trademarks or service marks to imply a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of us by, these other companies. Solely for convenience, trademarks and tradenames referred to in this prospectus may appear without the ® or ™ symbols, but such references are not intended to indicate in any way that we will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, our rights, or that the applicable owner will not assert its rights, to these trademarks and tradenames.

 

Offerings Under This Prospectus by Us

 

Under this prospectus, we may offer our securities from time to time at prices and on terms to be determined by market conditions at the time of the offering. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we offer securities under this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will describe the specific amounts, prices and other important terms of the securities.

 

The prospectus supplement also may add, update or change information contained in this prospectus or in documents we have incorporated by reference into this prospectus. However, no prospectus supplement will fundamentally change the terms that are set forth in this prospectus or offer a security that is not registered and described in this prospectus at the time of its effectiveness.

 

We may sell the securities directly to investors or to or through agents, underwriters or dealers. We, and our agents or underwriters, reserve the right to accept or reject all or part of any proposed purchase of securities. If we offer securities through agents or underwriters, we will include in the applicable prospectus supplement:

 

the names of those agents or underwriters;

applicable fees, discounts and commissions to be paid to them;

details regarding over-allotment and other options to purchase additional securities, if any; and

the net proceeds to us.

 

This prospectus may not be used to consummate a sale of any securities by us unless it is accompanied by a prospectus supplement.

 

The Securities Selling Shareholders May Offer

 

The selling shareholders named in this prospectus may offer and resell from time to time up to 38,266,180 Common Shares. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of Common Shares by the selling shareholders. Please see the section titled “Selling Shareholders” in this prospectus.

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RISK FACTORS

 

Investing in our securities involves significant risk. The prospectus supplement applicable to each offering of our securities will contain a discussion of the risks applicable to an investment in us. Prior to making a decision about investing in our securities, you should carefully consider the specific factors discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” in the applicable prospectus supplement, together with all of the other information contained or incorporated by reference in the prospectus supplement or appearing or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. You should also consider the risks, uncertainties and assumptions discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” included in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, as revised or supplemented by our subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q or our Current Reports on Form 8-K that we have filed with the SEC, all of which are incorporated herein by reference, and which may be amended, supplemented or superseded from time to time by other reports we file with the SEC in the future. The risks and uncertainties we have described are not the only ones we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also affect our operations. The occurrence of any of these risks might cause you to lose all or part of your investment in the offered securities.

 

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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

This prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus include forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, that relate to future events or our future financial performance and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, levels of activity, performance or achievements to differ materially from any future results, levels of activity, performance or achievements expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. Words such as, but not limited to, “believe,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “targets,” “likely,” “will,” “would,” “could,” “should,” “continue,” and similar expressions or phrases, or the negative of those expressions or phrases, are intended to identify forward-looking statements, although not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words. Although we believe that we have a reasonable basis for each forward-looking statement contained in this prospectus and incorporated by reference in this prospectus, we caution you that these statements are based on our projections of the future that are subject to known and unknown risks and uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, level of activity, performance or achievements expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements, to differ. The sections in our periodic reports, including our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, as revised or supplemented by our subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q or our Current Reports on Form 8-K, entitled “Business,” “Risk Factors,” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” as well as other sections in this prospectus and the other documents or reports incorporated by reference in this prospectus, discuss some of the factors that could contribute to these differences. These forward-looking statements include, among other things, statements about:

 

our use of the net proceeds from this offering;

the commercial and technical feasibility of seafloor polymetallic nodule collection and processing;

our and our partners’ development and operational plans, including with respect to the planned uses of polymetallic nodules, where and how nodules will be obtained and processed, the expected environmental, social and governance impacts thereof and our plans to assess these impacts and the timing and scope of these plans, including the timing and expectations with respect to our receipt of exploitation contracts and our potential commercialization plans;

the supply and demand for battery metals and battery cathode feedstocks, copper cathode and manganese ores;

the future prices of battery metals and battery cathode feedstocks, copper cathode and manganese ores;

the timing and content of ISA’s final exploitation regulations that will create the legal and technical framework for exploitation of polymetallic nodules in the CCZ;

government regulation of mineral extraction from the deep seafloor and changes in mining laws and regulations;

technical, operational, environmental, social and governance risks of developing and deploying equipment to collect polymetallic nodules at sea and to process such nodules on land;

the sources and timing of potential revenue as well as the timing and amount of estimated future production, costs of production, other expenses, capital expenditures and requirements for additional capital;

cash flow provided by operating activities;

the expected activities of our partners under our key strategic relationships;

the sufficiency of our cash on hand to meet our working capital and capital expenditure requirements and the need for additional financing;

our ability to raise financing in the future and the nature of such financings;

any litigation to which we are a party;

claims and limitations on insurance coverage;

our plans to mitigate our material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting;

the restatement of our financial statements;

geological, metallurgical and geotechnical studies and opinions;

mineral resource estimates;

our status as an emerging growth company, non-reporting Canadian issuer and passive foreign investment company;

 

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COVID-19 and the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business; and

our financial performance.

 

We may not actually achieve the plans, intentions or expectations disclosed in our forward-looking statements, and you should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements. Actual results or events could differ materially from the plans, intentions and expectations disclosed in the forward-looking statements we make. We have included important cautionary statements in this prospectus and in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus, particularly in the “Risk Factors” section, that we believe could cause actual results or events to differ materially from the forward-looking statements that we make. For a summary of such factors, please refer to the section entitled “Risk Factors” in this prospectus, as updated and supplemented by the discussion of risks and uncertainties under “Risk Factors” contained in any supplements to this prospectus and in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, as revised or supplemented by our subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q or our Current Reports on Form 8-K, as well as any amendments thereto, as filed with the SEC and which are incorporated herein by reference. The information contained in this document is believed to be current as of the date of this document. We do not intend to update any of the forward-looking statements after the date of this document to conform these statements to actual results or to changes in our expectations, except as required by law.

 

In light of these assumptions, risks and uncertainties, the results and events discussed in the forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus or in any document incorporated herein by reference might not occur. Investors are cautioned not to place undue reliance on the forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date of this prospectus or the date of the document incorporated by reference in this prospectus. We are not under any obligation, and we expressly disclaim any obligation, to update or alter any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise. All subsequent forward-looking statements attributable to us or to any person acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by the cautionary statements contained or referred to in this section.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

 

Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we intend to use any net proceeds from our sale of securities under this prospectus for general corporate purposes. We will have broad discretion over the use of any proceeds. Pending application of the net proceeds, we may initially invest the net proceeds in short-term, investment-grade, interest-bearing securities or apply them to the reduction of any indebtedness.

 

The selling shareholders will make offers and sales pursuant to this prospectus and, if required, any applicable prospectus supplement. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale or other disposition by the selling shareholders of the Common Shares covered hereby, or interests therein. The selling shareholders will pay any expenses incurred by the selling shareholders for brokerage, accounting, tax or legal services or any other expenses incurred by the selling shareholders in disposing of these shares. We will bear all other costs, fees and expenses incurred in effecting the registration of the shares covered by this prospectus, including, without limitation, all registration fees, listing fees of The Nasdaq Stock Market and fees and expenses of our counsel and our independent registered public accounting firm.

 

8 

 

 

SELLING SHAREHOLDERS

 

We are registering for resale an aggregate of 38,266,180 Common Shares that may be sold by the selling shareholders set forth herein. Of these shares, 37,978,680 Common Shares were issued or are expected to be issued to the selling shareholders pursuant to that certain securities purchase agreement, dated August 12, 2022, or the PIPE Purchase Agreement, with the purchasers named therein for the issuance and sale of an aggregate of 31,625,000 Common Shares at a purchase price of $0.80 per share, a separate securities purchase agreement with Gerard Barron, our Chief Executive Officer and Chairman, or the Barron Purchase Agreement, for the issuance and sale of 103,680 Common Shares at $0.9645 per share, the consolidated closing bid price per Common Share on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on August 11, 2022, the date immediately preceding the signing of the Barron Purchase Agreement, and a separate securities purchase agreement with ERAS Capital LLC, the family fund of one of our directors, Andrei Karkar, for the issuance and sale of 6,250,000 Common Shares at a purchase price of $0.80 per share, or the ERAS Purchase Agreement, under which, upon delivery by us of certain closing deliverables, ERAS Capital LLC is irrevocably bound to purchase such Common Shares on or before September 30, 2022. The PIPE Purchase Agreement, the Barron Purchase Agreement and the ERAS Purchase Agreement are referred to herein collectively as the Purchase Agreements. An aggregate of 287,500 Common Shares were issued to certain of our advisors in connection with advisory services they rendered related to the issuances of Common Shares pursuant to the Purchase Agreements. We are registering the resale of these Common Shares pursuant to the Purchase Agreements as well as arrangements with certain of our advisors. We will not receive any proceeds from the resale of the Common Shares by the selling shareholders.

 

The following table and the accompanying footnotes are based in part on information supplied to us by the selling shareholders. The table and footnotes assume that the selling shareholders will sell all of the shares listed. However, because the selling shareholders may sell all or some of their shares under this prospectus from time to time, or in another permitted manner, we cannot assure you as to the actual number of shares that will be sold by the selling shareholders or that will be held by the selling shareholders after completion of any sales. We do not know how long the selling shareholders will hold the shares before selling them.

 

The following table sets forth certain information with respect to the beneficial ownership of our Common Shares as of August 31, 2022 by each selling shareholder. Beneficial ownership is determined in accordance with the rules of the SEC and includes voting or investment power with respect to the securities. We deem Common Shares that may be acquired by an individual or group within 60 days of August 31, 2022 pursuant to the exercise of options or conversion of convertible securities to be outstanding for the purpose of computing the percentage ownership of such individual or group, but those shares are not deemed to be outstanding for the purpose of computing the percentage ownership of any other person shown in the table. The Common Shares issuable upon conversion of any Special Shares owned by the selling shareholders are not beneficially owned by any of the selling shareholders and are excluded from the beneficial ownership columns in the table below since the conversions of such Special Shares are subject to the Common Share trading price thresholds described herein. Please see the section titled “Description of Common Shares and Special Shares” in this prospectus. Except as indicated in footnotes to this table, we believe that the shareholders named in this table have sole voting and investment power with respect to all Common Shares shown to be beneficially owned by them based on information provided to us by these shareholders. Percentage of ownership prior to the offering is based on 265,424,635 Common Shares outstanding on August 31, 2022, assuming that we issued all of the 37,978,680 Common Shares issuable under the Purchase Agreements and the 287,500 Common Shares issued to our advisors on or before such date.

 

9 

 

 

Name of Selling Shareholder(1)   Common Shares Beneficially
Owned Prior to Offering
    Number of
Common
Shares Being
    Common Shares to be
Beneficially Owned After
Offering
 
  Number     Percentage   Offered   Number     Percentage  
Willeese Pty Ltd ATF Wilson Family Trust(2)   1,522,990         *       375,000       1,147,990       *  
Cadence Capital Limited(3)   2,250,000         *       2,250,000       -       -  
Cadence Opportunities Fund Limited(4)   250,000         *       250,000       -       -  
Carrera Capital International Ltd.(5)   1,719,890         *       250,000       1,469,890       *  
Lucas Cahill(6)   1,198,298         *       687,500       510,798       *  
Brian Paes-Braga(7)   2,325,731         *       1,562,500       763,231       *  
Valola Holdings Corp.(8)   2,500,000         *       2,500,000       -       -  
South Lake One LLC(9)   12,284,667         4.6%       2,500,000       9,784,667       3.7%  
Brian Stewart(10)   125,000         *       125,000       -       -  
Namdar Family Holdings LLC(11)   5,000,000         1.9%       5,000,000       -       -  
Majid Fahd M Alghaslan(12)   4,011,000         1.5%       3,750,000       261,000       *  
BMO Nesbitt Burns Inc. ITF Lynwood Opportunities Master Fund(13)   1,250,000         *       1,250,000       -       -  
Nero Resource Fund Pty Ltd(14)   625,000         *       625,000       -       -  
Peter Jon Deschenes Jr(15)   275,000         *       250,000       25,000       *  
The RF Trust(16)   250,000         *       250,000       -       -  
Gadi Slade(17)   500,000         *       500,000       -       -  
Ronit Global Opportunities Master Fund Limited(18)   1,748,154         *       1,500,000       248,154       *  
Leste Global Fund SPC - Segregated Portfolio B(19)   1,250,000         *       1,250,000       -       -  
Light Doors LLC(20)   125,000         *       125,000       -       -  
Lydia Barron(21)   489,338         *       125,000       364,338       *  
Claudia Barron(22)   389,632         *       125,000       264,632       *  
Charlotte Barron(23)   396,538         *       125,000       271,538       *  
Allseas Group S.A.(24)   22,701,648         8.6%       6,250,000       16,451,648       6.2%  
Gerard Barron(25)   18,806,677         7.0%       103,680       18,702,997       6.9%  
ERAS Capital LLC(26)   53,370,692         20.0%       6,250,000       47,120,692       17.7%  
Odeon Capital Group LLC(27)   186,250         *       186,250       -       -  
Edward Sugar(28)   70,875         *       70,875       -       -  
Rogier de la Rambelje(29)   10,125         *       10,125       -       -  
Matthew Bonner(30)   20,250         *       20,250       -       -  

 

*     Represents beneficial ownership of less than 1% of the outstanding Common Shares.  

(1) Unless otherwise indicated, the business address of each of these holders is c/o TMC the metals company Inc., 595 Howe Street, 10th Floor, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V6C 2T5.
(2) Paul David Wilson may be deemed to have voting and investment power over the shares held by Willeese Pty Ltd ATF Wilson Family Trust. The business address of such holder is 58 Warragal Road, Turramurra, New South Wales, 2074, Australia.
(3) Cadence Capital Limited is a company listed on the Australian Securities Exchange. The business address of such holder is 11/131 Macquarie Street, Sydney, NSW, 2000.
(4) Cadence Opportunities Fund Limited is a company listed on the Australian Securities Exchange. The business address of such holder is 11/131 Macquarie Street, Sydney, NSW, 2000.
(5) Jeffrey Zicherman may be deemed to have voting and investment power over the shares held by Carrera Capital International Ltd. The business address of such holder is One Nexus Way, Camana Bay, Grand Cayman, Cayman Islands, KY1-9005.

 

10 

 

 

(6) The business address of such holder is One Connaught Place, 1st Floor, London, W2 WET, United Kingdom.
(7) Includes 57,893 Common Shares held by its wholly-owned subsidiary, WTP Capital Corp. and 126,407 Common Shares underlying options that are exercisable within 60 days of August 31, 2022. Mr. Paes-Braga may be deemed to have voting and investment power over the shares held by WTP Capital Corp. and Valola Holdings Corp. The business address of such holder is One Connaught Place, 1st Floor, London, W2 WET, United Kingdom. Mr. Paes-Braga was formerly a non-employee director of DeepGreen.
(8) Brian Paes-Braga may be deemed to have voting and investment power over the shares held by Valola Holdings Corp. The business address of such holder is One Nexus Way, Camana Bay, Grand Cayman, Cayman Islands, KY1-9005.
(9) Isidoro Alfonso Quiroga Cortés, María Victoria Quiroga Moreno, Martín Abraham Guiloff Salvador and Luis Felipe Correa González, in their capacity as members of the board of managers, may be deemed to have voting and dispositive power (acting jointly Isidoro Alfonso Quiroga Cortés or María Victoria Quiroga Moreno with any of between Martín Abraham Guiloff Salvador and Luis Felipe Correa González) with respect  to the securities held by South Lake One LLC. The business address of such holder is Presidente Riesco 5711 office 1603, Las Condes, Santiago, Chile.
(10) The business address of such holder is 48 Weathervane Circle, Cream Ridge, NJ 08514.
(11) Igal Namdar may be deemed to have voting and investment power over the shares held by Namdar Family Holdings LLC. The business address of such holder is 150 Great Neck Road, Suite 304, Great Neck, NY, 11021.
(12) The business address of such holder is 3618, Al Amir Muhammad bin Fahd Rd, Al Qusur Unit 6, Dhahran, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
(13) Ben Shapiro may be deemed to have voting and investment power over the shares held by BMO Nesbitt Burns Inc. ITF Lynwood Opportunities Master Fund. The business address of such holder is FG Services Limited, #2206, Cassia Court, 72 Market St., Camana Bay, P.O. Box 30869 Grand Cayman KY1-1204, Cayman Islands.
(14) The business address of such holder is AAM PO Box 107, Morley, Western Australia, Australia 6943.
(15) The business address of such holder is 115 East 67th Street, Apartment 4B, New York, NY 10065.
(16) Muriel Rubin and Harriet Rothfeld may be deemed to have voting and investment power over the shares held by The RF Trust. The business address of such holder is PO Box 213399, Royal Palm Beach, Florida 33421.
(17) The business address of such holder is 48 Owenoke Park, Westport, CT 06880, USA.
(18) Ronit Capital LLP may be deemed to have voting and investment power over the shares held by Ronit Global Opportunities Master Fund Limited. The business address of such holder is C/O Ronit Capital LLP, 20 North Audley Street, London, W1K 6WE, UK.
(19) Emmanuel Rose Hermann may be deemed to have voting and investment power over the shares held by Leste Global Fund SPC - Segregated Portfolio B. The business address of such holder is Conyers Trust Company (Cayman) Limited, Cricket Square, Hutchins Drive, PO Box 2681, George Town, Grand Cayman, KY1-1111, Cayman Islands.
(20) Mathew Van Alstyne may be deemed to have voting and investment power over the shares held by Light Doors LLC. The business address of such holder is 750 Lexington Avenue, 27th Floor, NY, NY 10022.
(21) Represents (i) 399,944 Common Shares and (ii) 89,394 Common Shares issued upon exercise of warrants.
(22) Represents (i) 300,238 Common Shares and (ii) 89,394 Common Shares issued upon exercise of warrants.
(23) Represents (i) 307,144 Common Shares and (ii) 89,394 Common Shares issued upon exercise of warrants.
(24) Does not include 11,578,620 Common Shares issuable upon exercise of the warrant held by Allseas Group S.A. (“Allseas”). Edward Heerema, the Administrateur President of Allseas, has sole authority over Allseas. Edward Hereema, Allseas Investments S.A. (“Allseas Investments”), the majority parent of Allseas, Argentum Cedit Virtuti GCV (“ACV”), the parent of Allseas Investments, and Stichting Administratiekantoor Aequa Lance Foundation, the parent of ACV, may be deemed to have beneficial ownership of the shares owned by Allseas. The business address of such holder is 18 Route de Pra de Plan, Case Postale, 411 1618 Chatel-Saint-Denis, Switzerland. We have a strategic relationship with Allseas in connection with the development of our collection systems.
(25) Represents (i) 14,639,239 Common Shares, (ii) 4,078,044 Common Shares that are issuable upon exercise of options that are exercisable within 60 days of August 31, 2022, and (iii) 89,394 Common Shares underlying warrants. Does not include (i) up to 781,250 restricted stock units, each representing the right to receive one Common Share upon vesting, which vest in three equal annual installments beginning on November 22, 2022 and ending on November 22, 2024 and (ii) up to 12,113,741 special shares (which includes special shares underlying options) which automatically convert into Common Shares on a one for one basis, if on any twenty trading days within any thirty trading day period, the Common Shares trade for a price that is greater than or equal to the price threshold for such class of special shares.
(26) Represents (i) 51,955,976 Common Shares and (ii) 1,414,716 Common Shares issuable upon exercise of warrants owned by ERAS Capital LLC (“ERAS”). Andrei Karkar has voting and dispositive control over the securities held by ERAS and therefore Mr. Karkar may be deemed to have beneficial ownership of the shares held by ERAS. The business address of such holder is 323 Marina Blvd, San Francisco, CA 94123-1213.
(27) Mathew Van Alstyne may be deemed to have voting and investment power over the shares held by Odeon Capital Group LLC. The business address of such holder is 750 Lexington Avenue, 27th Floor, NY, NY 10022. The Common Shares being offered were issued by us in connection with advisory services rendered to us related to the issuance of the Common Shares pursuant to the Purchaser Agreement.
(28) The business address of such holder is 785 Fifth Avenue, Apt. 11-C, New York, NY 10022. The Common Shares being offered were issued by us in connection with advisory services rendered to us related to the issuance of the Common Shares pursuant to the Purchaser Agreement.
(29) The business address of such holder is 54 Morton Street, Apt 4F, New York, NY 10014. The Common Shares being offered were issued by us in connection with advisory services rendered to us related to the issuance of the Common Shares pursuant to the Purchaser Agreement.
(30) The business address of such holder is 3600 North Lake Blvd, #186, Tahoe City, CA 96145. The Common Shares being offered were issued by us in connection with advisory services rendered to us related to the issuance of the Common Shares pursuant to the Purchaser Agreement.

  

11 

 

 

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

 

We or the selling shareholders may offer securities under this prospectus from time to time pursuant to underwritten public offerings, negotiated transactions, block trades or a combination of these methods or any of the following:

 

  ordinary brokerage transactions and transactions in which the broker-dealer solicits purchasers;
  block trades in which the broker-dealer will attempt to sell the shares as agent but may position and resell a portion of the block as principal to facilitate the transaction;
  purchases by a broker-dealer as principal and resale by the broker-dealer for its account;
  an exchange distribution in accordance with the rules of the applicable exchange;
  privately negotiated transactions;
  settlement of short sales entered into after the effective date of the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part;
  broker-dealers may agree with the selling shareholders to sell a specified number of such shares at a stipulated price per share;
  through the writing or settlement of options or other hedging transactions, whether such options are listed on an options exchange or otherwise;
  a combination of any such methods of sale; and
  any other method permitted pursuant to applicable law.

 

We or the selling shareholders may sell the securities (1) through underwriters or dealers, (2) through agents or (3) directly to one or more purchasers, or through a combination of such methods. We or the selling shareholders may distribute the securities on any national securities exchange or quotation service on which the securities may be listed or quoted at the time of sale, in the over-the-counter market or in transactions otherwise than on these exchanges or systems or in the over-the-counter market from time to time in one or more transactions at:

 

  a fixed price or prices, which may be changed from time to time;
  market prices prevailing at the time of sale;
  prices related to the prevailing market prices; or
  negotiated prices.

 

We may also designate agents to solicit offers to purchase the securities from time to time, and may enter into arrangements for “at-the-market,” equity line or similar transactions. We will name in a prospectus supplement any underwriter or agent involved in the offer or sale of the securities.

 

If we or the selling shareholders utilize a dealer in the sale of the securities being offered by this prospectus, we or the selling shareholders, as applicable, will sell the securities to the dealer, as principal. The dealer may then resell the securities to the public at varying prices to be determined by the dealer at the time of resale.

 

If an underwriter is used in the sale of the securities being offered by this prospectus, an underwriting agreement will be executed with the underwriter at the time of sale, and the name of any underwriter will be provided in any prospectus supplement, if required, which the underwriter will use to make resales of the securities to the public. In connection with the sale of the securities, we or the selling shareholders, or the purchasers of the securities for whom the underwriter may act as agent, may compensate the underwriter in the form of underwriting discounts or commissions. The underwriter may sell the securities to or through dealers, and the underwriter may compensate those dealers in the form of discounts, concessions or commissions.

 

With respect to underwritten public offerings, negotiated transactions and block trades, we or the selling shareholders, if required, will provide in the applicable prospectus supplement information regarding any compensation paid to underwriters, dealers or agents in connection with the offering of the securities, and any discounts, concessions or commissions allowed by underwriters to participating dealers. Underwriters, dealers and agents participating in the distribution of the securities may be deemed to be underwriters within the meaning of the Securities Act, and any discounts and commissions received by them and any profit realized by them on resale of the securities may be deemed to be underwriting discounts and commissions. We or the selling securities may enter into agreements to indemnify underwriters, dealers and agents against civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, or to contribute to payments they may be required to make in respect thereof. To the extent required by the Purchase Agreements, we have agreed to indemnify certain of the selling shareholders against liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act and state securities laws, relating to the registration of certain of the shares offered by this prospectus.

 

12 

 

 

If so indicated in a prospectus supplement, if required, we or the selling shareholders will authorize the underwriters, dealers or other persons acting as our agents to solicit offers by certain institutions to purchase securities from us pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on the date stated in each applicable prospectus supplement, if required. Each contract will be for an amount not less than, and the aggregate amount of securities sold pursuant to such contracts shall not be less nor more than, the respective amounts stated in each applicable prospectus supplement. Institutions with whom the contracts, when authorized, may be made include commercial and savings banks, insurance companies, pension funds, investment companies, educational and charitable institutions and other institutions, but shall in all cases be subject to our approval. Delayed delivery contracts will not be subject to any conditions except that:

 

the purchase by an institution of the securities covered under that contract shall not at the time of delivery be prohibited under the laws of the jurisdiction to which that institution is subject; and

if the securities are also being sold to underwriters acting as principals for their own account, the underwriters shall have purchased such securities not sold for delayed delivery. The underwriters and other persons acting as our agents will not have any responsibility in respect of the validity or performance of delayed delivery contracts.

 

One or more firms, referred to as “remarketing firms,” may also offer or sell the securities, if a prospectus supplement, if required, so indicates, in connection with a remarketing arrangement upon their purchase. Remarketing firms will act as principals for their own accounts or as our agents. These remarketing firms will offer or sell the securities in accordance with the terms of the securities. Each prospectus supplement, if required, will identify and describe any remarketing firm and the terms of its agreement, if any, with us and will describe the remarketing firm’s compensation. Remarketing firms may be deemed to be underwriters in connection with the securities they remarket. Remarketing firms may be entitled under agreements that may be entered into with us to indemnification by us against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, and may be customers of, engage in transactions with or perform services for us in the ordinary course of business.

 

Certain underwriters may use this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement, if required, for offers and sales related to market-making transactions in the securities. These underwriters may act as principal or agent in these transactions, and the sales will be made at prices related to prevailing market prices at the time of sale. Any selling shareholders and underwriters involved in the sale of the securities may qualify as “underwriters” within the meaning of Section 2(a)(11) of the Securities Act. In addition, the underwriters’ commissions, discounts or concessions may qualify as underwriters’ compensation under the Securities Act and the rules of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc., or FINRA. Selling shareholders who are “underwriters” within the meaning of Section 2(a)(11) of the Securities Act will be subject to the prospectus delivery requirements of the Securities Act.

 

Common Shares sold pursuant to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part will be authorized for listing and trading on The Nasdaq Stock Market. The applicable prospectus supplement, if required, will contain information, where applicable, as to any other listing, if any, on The Nasdaq Stock Market or any securities market or other securities exchange of the securities covered by the prospectus supplement. Underwriters may make a market in our Common Shares, but will not be obligated to do so and may discontinue any market making at any time without notice. We can make no assurance as to the liquidity of or the existence, development or maintenance of trading markets for any of the securities.

 

In order to facilitate the offering of the securities, certain persons participating in the offering may engage in transactions that stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the price of the securities. This may include over-allotments or short sales of the securities, which involve the sale by persons participating in the offering of more securities than we sold to them. In these circumstances, these persons would cover such over-allotments or short positions by making purchases in the open market or by exercising their over-allotment option. In addition, these persons may stabilize or maintain the price of the securities by bidding for or purchasing the applicable security in the open market or by imposing penalty bids, whereby selling concessions allowed to dealers participating in the offering may be reclaimed if the securities sold by them are repurchased in connection with stabilization transactions. The effect of these transactions may be to stabilize or maintain the market price of the securities at a level above that which might otherwise prevail in the open market. These transactions may be discontinued at any time.

 

13 

 

 

The underwriters, dealers and agents may engage in other transactions with us, or perform other services for us, in the ordinary course of their business.

 

The selling shareholders also may resell all or a portion of the shares in open market transactions in reliance upon Rule 144 under the Securities Act, as permitted by that rule, or Section 4(1) under the Securities Act, if available, rather than under this prospectus, provided that they meet the criteria and conform to the requirements of those provisions.

 

Broker-dealers engaged by the selling shareholders may arrange for other broker-dealers to participate in sales. If the selling shareholders effect such transactions by selling Common Shares to or through underwriters, broker-dealers or agents, such underwriters, broker-dealers or agents may receive commissions in the form of discounts, concessions or commissions from the selling shareholders or commissions from purchasers of the Common Shares for whom they may act as agent or to whom they may sell as principal. Such commissions will be in amounts to be negotiated, but, except as set forth in a supplement to this prospectus, in the case of an agency transaction will not be in excess of a customary brokerage commission in compliance with FINRA Rule 5110.

 

In connection with sales of the Common Shares or otherwise, the selling shareholders may enter into hedging transactions with broker-dealers or other financial institutions, which may in turn engage in short sales of the Common Shares in the course of hedging in positions they assume. The selling shareholders may also sell Common Shares short and if such short sale shall take place after the effective date of this registration statement, the selling shareholders may deliver Common Shares covered by this prospectus to close out short positions and to return borrowed shares in connection with such short sales. The selling shareholders may also loan or pledge Common Shares to broker-dealers that in turn may sell such shares, to the extent permitted by applicable law. The selling shareholders may also enter into option or other transactions with broker-dealers or other financial institutions or the creation of one or more derivative securities which require the delivery to such broker-dealer or other financial institution of shares offered by this prospectus, which shares such broker-dealer or other financial institution may resell pursuant to this prospectus (as supplemented or amended to reflect such transaction, if required). Notwithstanding the foregoing, the selling shareholders have been advised that they may not use shares registered on this registration statement to cover short sales of Common Shares made prior to the effective date of the registration statement, of which this prospectus forms a part.

 

The selling shareholders may, from time to time, pledge or grant a security interest in some or all of the Common Shares owned by them and, if they default in the performance of their secured obligations, the pledgees or secured parties may offer and sell the Common Shares from time to time pursuant to this prospectus or any amendment to this prospectus under Rule 424(b)(3) or other applicable provision of the Securities Act, amending, if necessary, the list of selling shareholders to include the pledgee, transferee or other successors in interest as selling shareholders under this prospectus. The selling shareholders also may transfer and donate the Common Shares in other circumstances in which case the transferees, donees, pledgees or other successors in interest will be the selling beneficial owners for purposes of this prospectus.

 

Each selling shareholder has informed the Company that it is not a registered broker-dealer and does not have any written or oral agreement or understanding, directly or indirectly, with any person to distribute the Common Shares. Upon the Company being notified in writing by a selling shareholders that any material arrangement has been entered into with a broker-dealer for the sale of Common Shares through a block trade, special offering, exchange distribution or secondary distribution or a purchase by a broker or dealer, a supplement to this prospectus will be filed, if required, pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act, disclosing (i) the name of each such selling shareholders and of the participating broker-dealer(s), (ii) the number of shares involved, (iii) the price at which such the Common Shares were sold, (iv) the commissions paid or discounts or concessions allowed to such broker-dealer(s), where applicable, (v) that such broker-dealer(s) did not conduct any investigation to verify the information set out or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, and (vi) other facts material to the transaction.

 

14 

 

 

Under the securities laws of some states, the Common Shares may be sold in such states only through registered or licensed brokers or dealers. In addition, in some states the Common Shares may not be sold unless such shares have been registered or qualified for sale in such state or an exemption from registration or qualification is available and is complied with.

 

There can be no assurance that any selling shareholders will sell any or all of the Common Shares registered pursuant to the shelf registration statement, of which this prospectus forms a part.

 

Each selling shareholder and any other person participating in such distribution will be subject to applicable provisions of the Exchange Act and the rules and regulations thereunder, including, without limitation, Regulation M of the Exchange Act, which may limit the timing of purchases and sales of any of the Common Shares by the selling shareholders and any other participating person. Regulation M may also restrict the ability of any person engaged in the distribution of the Common Shares to engage in market-making activities with respect to the Common Shares. All of the foregoing may affect the marketability of the Common Shares and the ability of any person or entity to engage in market-making activities with respect to the Common Shares.

 

We will pay all expenses of the registration of the Common Shares pursuant to the Purchase Agreements, including, without limitation, SEC filing fees and expenses of compliance with state securities or “blue sky” laws; provided, however, that each selling shareholder will pay all underwriting discounts and selling commissions, if any. We will indemnify the selling shareholders against certain liabilities, including some liabilities under the Securities Act, in accordance with the Purchase Agreements, or the selling shareholders will be entitled to contribution. We may be indemnified by the selling shareholders against civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, that may arise from any written information furnished to us by the selling shareholders specifically for use in this prospectus, in accordance with the Purchase Agreements, or we may be entitled to contribution.

 

15 

 

 

DESCRIPTION OF COMMON SHARES AND SPECIAL SHARES

 

Our authorized capital consists of (a) an unlimited number of Common Shares, (b) an unlimited number of preferred shares, issuable in series, (c) 5,000,000 Class A Special Shares, (d) 10,000,000 Class B Special Shares, (e) 10,000,000 Class C Special Shares, (f) 20,000,000 Class D Special Shares, (g) 20,000,000 Class E Special Shares, (h) 20,000,000 Class F Special Shares, (i) 25,000,000 Class G Special Shares, (j) 25,000,000 Class H Special Shares, (k) 500,000 Class I Special Shares, and (l) 741,000 Class J Special Shares, each without par value.

 

The following summaries of certain provisions of our Common Shares and Special Shares do not purport to be complete. You should refer to the section of this prospectus entitled “Certain Important Provisions of The Notice of Articles and Articles and the BCBCA”, “Ownership and Exchange Controls” and our notice of articles and articles, both of which are included as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. The summaries below are also qualified by provisions of applicable law.

 

Common Shares

 

As of August 31, 2022, there were 265,424,635 Common Shares issued and outstanding. As of August 31, 2022, we had approximately 122 record holders of our Common Shares.

 

General

 

Holders of Common Shares are entitled to one (1) vote per share on all matters upon which holders of shares are entitled to vote. Subject to the Business Corporations Act (British Columbia), or the BCBCA, and prior rights of the holders of preferred shares and any other class ranking senior to the Common Shares, the holders of Common Shares are entitled to receive dividends as, if and when declared by the board of directors. Subject to the prior rights of the holders of Special Shares and preferred shares, and any other class ranking senior to the Common Shares, in the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding-up or other distribution of our assets among our shareholders, the holders of Common Shares will be entitled to share pro rata in the distribution of the balance of our assets. Holders of Common Shares will have no pre-emptive or conversion or exchange rights or other subscription rights. There are no redemption, retraction, purchase for cancellation or surrender provisions or sinking or purchase fund provisions applicable to Common Shares. There is no provision in the notice of articles and articles requiring holders of Common Shares to contribute additional capital, or permitting or restricting the issuance of additional securities of authorized share capital or any other material restrictions. The special rights or restrictions attached to Common Shares are subject to and may be adversely affected by, the rights attached to any series of preferred shares that the board of directors may designate in the future.

 

Transfer Agent and Registrar

 

The transfer agent for our Common Shares is Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company.

 

Stock Exchange Listing

 

Our Common Shares are listed for trading on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “TMC”.

 

Special Shares

 

As of August 31, 2022, there were issued and outstanding (a) 4,999,973 Class A Special Shares, (b) 9,999,853 Class B Special Shares, (c) 9,999,853 Class C Special Shares, (d) 19,999,855 Class D Special Shares, (e) 19,999,855 Class E Special Shares, (f) 19,999,855 Class F Special Shares, (g) 24,999,860 Class G Special Shares, (h) 24,999,860 Class H Special Shares, (i) 500,000 Class I Special Shares and (j) 741,000 Class J Special Shares.

 

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Holders of Special Shares are not entitled to any voting rights, except as required under the BCBCA in certain circumstances, and are not entitled to receive dividends. Subject to the prior rights of the holders of preferred shares, in the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding-up or other distribution of our assets among our shareholders, the holders of Special Shares will be entitled to receive an amount equal to $0.00000000001 per Special Share, or the Redemption Price. Holders of Special Shares have no pre-emptive or exchange rights or other subscription rights. There is no provision in our notice of articles and articles requiring holders of Special Shares to contribute additional capital. The special rights or restrictions attached to Special Shares are subject to and may be adversely affected by, the rights attached to any series of preferred shares that the board of directors may designate in the future. Our notice of articles and articles provide that the Special Shares may not be, directly or indirectly, sold, transferred, assigned, pledged, mortgaged, exchanged, hypothecated or encumbered without the prior approval of the board of directors, which shall only be given under certain circumstances specified in our notice or articles and articles, referred to herein as a Permitted Transfer. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any holder of Special Shares may, at any time, provide an irrevocable direction and agreement in favor of us that a proposed transfer shall be deemed not to be a Permitted Transfer and that irrevocable direction may provide that any other Permitted Transfer shall require that the transferee provide an identical type of irrevocable direction and agreement.

 

Subject to the provisions of the BCBCA, any Special Shares then outstanding shall be redeemed by us without any action on the part of the holders of Special Shares (i) at any time after the 15th year anniversary of the original issue date of the Special Shares or (ii) at any time after a Change of Control, in each case at the Redemption Price. For the purposes of our notice of articles and articles, “Change of Control” shall mean any transaction or series of related transactions (x) under which any person or one or more persons that are affiliates or that are acting as a “group” (as defined in Section 13(d)(3) of the Exchange Act), directly or indirectly, acquires or otherwise purchases (i) the Company or (ii) all or a material portion of assets, businesses or our Equity Securities (as defined below) or (y) that results, directly or indirectly, in our shareholders as of immediately prior to such transaction holding, in the aggregate, less than 50% of the voting Equity Securities immediately after the consummation thereof (excluding, for the avoidance of doubt, any Special Shares and the Common Shares issuable upon conversion thereof) (in the case of each of clause (x) and (y), whether by amalgamation, merger, consolidation, arrangement, tender offer, recapitalization, purchase or issuance of Equity Securities or otherwise), and “Equity Securities” shall refer to Common Shares, the preferred shares, Special Shares or any other class of shares or series thereof in our capital or similar interest us (including any stock appreciation, phantom stock, profit participation or similar rights), and any option, warrant, right or security (including debt securities) convertible, exchangeable or exercisable therefor.

 

The Special Shares will automatically convert into Common Shares on a one (1) for one (1) basis (unless adjusted as described below) upon the occurrence of the following events:

 

in the case of the Class A Special Shares, if (a) on any twenty (20) trading days within any thirty (30) trading day period, the Common Shares trade on the principal securities exchange or securities market on which Common Shares are then traded for a price that is greater than or equal to $15.00, or (b) there occurs any transaction resulting in a Change of Control with a valuation of the Common Shares that is greater than or equal to $15.00 per Common Share;
in the case of the Class B Special Shares, if (a) on any twenty (20) trading days within any thirty (30) trading day period, the Common Shares trade on the principal securities exchange or securities market on which Common Shares are then traded for a price that is greater than or equal to $25.00, or (b) there occurs any transaction resulting in a Change of Control with a valuation of the Common Shares that is greater than or equal to $25.00 per Common Share;
in the case of the Class C Special Shares, if (a) on any twenty (20) trading days within any thirty (30) trading day period, the Common Shares trade on the principal securities exchange or securities market on which Common Shares are then traded for a price that is greater than or equal to $35.00, or (b) there occurs any transaction resulting in a Change of Control with a valuation of the Common Shares that is greater than or equal to $35.00 per Common Share;
in the case of the Class D Special Shares, if (a) on any twenty (20) trading days within any thirty (30) trading day period, the Common Shares trade on the principal securities exchange or securities market on which Common Shares are then traded for a price that is greater than or equal to $50.00, or (b) there occurs any transaction resulting in a Change of Control with a valuation of the Common Shares that is greater than or equal to $50.00 per Common Share;
in the case of the Class E Special Shares, if (a) on any twenty (20) trading days within any thirty (30) trading day period, the Common Shares trade on the principal securities exchange or securities market on which Common Shares are then traded for a price that is greater than or equal to $75.00, or (b) there occurs any transaction resulting in a Change of Control with a valuation of the Common Shares that is greater than or equal to $75.00 per Common Share;

 

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in the case of the Class F Special Shares, if (a) on any twenty (20) trading days within any thirty (30) trading day period, the Common Shares trade on the principal securities exchange or securities market on which Common Shares are then traded for a price that is greater than or equal to $100.00, or (b) there occurs any transaction resulting in a Change of Control with a valuation of the Common Shares that is greater than or equal to $100.00 per Common Share;
in the case of the Class G Special Shares, if (a) on any twenty (20) trading days within any thirty (30) trading day period, the Common Shares trade on the principal securities exchange or securities market on which Common Shares are then traded for a price that is greater than or equal to $150.00, or (b) there occurs any transaction resulting in a Change of Control with a valuation of the Common Shares that is greater than or equal to $150.00 per Common Share;
in the case of the Class H Special Shares, if (a) on any twenty (20) trading days within any thirty (30) trading day period, the Common Shares trade on the principal securities exchange or securities market on which Common Shares are then traded for a price that is greater than or equal to $200.00, or (b) there occurs any transaction resulting in a Change of Control with a valuation of the Common Shares that is greater than or equal to $200.00 per Common Share;
in the case of the Class I Special Shares, if (a) on any twenty (20) trading days within any thirty (30) trading day period, the Common Shares trade on the principal securities exchange or securities market on which Common Shares are then traded for a price that is greater than or equal to $50.00, or (b) there occurs any transaction resulting in a Change of Control with a valuation of the Common Shares that is greater than or equal to $50.00 per Common Share; and
in the case of the Class J Special Shares, if (a) on any twenty (20) trading days within any thirty (30) trading day period, the Common Shares trade on the principal securities exchange or securities market on which Common Shares are then traded for a price that is greater than or equal to $12.00, or (b) there occurs any transaction resulting in a Change of Control with a valuation of the Common Shares that is greater than or equal to $12.00 per Common Share.

 

No fractional Common Share will be issued upon the conversion of the Special Shares and no payment will be made to the holders of Special Shares in lieu thereof. Rather, the holders of Special Shares shall be entitled to the number of Common Shares determined by rounding the entitlement down to the nearest whole number.

 

In the event that the Common Shares are at any time sub-divided, consolidated, converted or exchanged for a greater or lesser number of shares of the same or another class, then appropriate adjustments will be made in the rights and conditions attaching to the Special Shares so as to preserve in all respects the benefits of the holders of Special Shares.

 

In the event of any merger, amalgamation, consolidation, arrangement, reorganization or other business combination involving the Company with another entity, other than a Change of Control, the holders of Special Shares will be entitled to receive, on conversion, such securities or other property as if on the effective date of the event they were registered holders of the number of Common Shares which such holders of Special Shares were entitled to receive upon conversion of their Special Shares.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED SHARES

 

The following description of our preferred shares and the description of the terms of any particular series of preferred shares that we choose to issue hereunder are not complete. These descriptions are qualified in their entirety by reference to notice of articles and articles, both of which are included as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.

 

We are authorized to issue an unlimited number of preferred shares, issuable in series. Accordingly, the board of directors is authorized, without shareholder approval but subject to the provisions of the BCBCA and notice of articles, to determine the maximum number of shares of each series, create an identifying name for each series and attach such special rights or restrictions, including dividend, liquidation and voting rights, as the board of directors may determine, and such special rights or restrictions, including dividend, liquidation and voting rights, may be superior to those of the Common Shares. The issuance of preferred shares, while providing flexibility in connection with possible acquisitions and other corporate purposes, could, among other things, have the effect of delaying, deferring or discouraging potential acquisition proposals and might adversely affect the market price of the Common Shares and the voting and other rights of the holders of Common Shares. We have no current plan to issue any preferred shares.

 

Transfer Agent and Registrar

 

The transfer agent and registrar for our preferred shares will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

 

The following description, together with the additional information we include in any applicable prospectus supplements, summarizes the material terms and provisions of the debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus. While the terms we have summarized below will apply generally to any future debt securities we may offer pursuant to this prospectus, we will describe the particular terms of any debt securities that we may offer in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement. If we so indicate in a prospectus supplement, the terms of any debt securities offered under such prospectus supplement may differ from the terms we describe below, and to the extent the terms set forth in a prospectus supplement differ from the terms described below, the terms set forth in the prospectus supplement shall control.

 

We may sell from time to time, in one or more offerings under this prospectus, debt securities, which may be senior or subordinated. We will issue any such senior debt securities under a senior indenture that we will enter into with a trustee to be named in the senior indenture. We will issue any such subordinated debt securities under a subordinated indenture, which we will enter into with a trustee to be named in the subordinated indenture. We have filed forms of these documents as exhibits to the registration statement, of which this prospectus is a part. We use the term “indentures” to refer to either the senior indenture or the subordinated indenture, as applicable. The indentures will be qualified under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as in effect on the date of the indenture. We use the term “debenture trustee” to refer to either the trustee under the senior indenture or the trustee under the subordinated indenture, as applicable.

 

The following summaries of material provisions of the senior debt securities, the subordinated debt securities and the indentures are subject to, and qualified in their entirety by reference to, all the provisions of the indenture applicable to a particular series of debt securities.

 

General

 

Each indenture provides that debt securities may be issued from time to time in one or more series and may be denominated and payable in foreign currencies or units based on or relating to foreign currencies. Neither indenture limits the amount of debt securities that may be issued thereunder, and each indenture provides that the specific terms of any series of debt securities shall be set forth in, or determined pursuant to, an authorizing resolution and/or a supplemental indenture, if any, relating to such series.

 

We will describe in each prospectus supplement the following terms relating to a series of debt securities:

 

the title or designation;

the aggregate principal amount and any limit on the amount that may be issued;

the currency or units based on or relating to currencies in which debt securities of such series are denominated and the currency or units in which principal or interest or both will or may be payable;

whether we will issue the series of debt securities in global form, the terms of any global securities and who the depositary will be;

the maturity date and the date or dates on which principal will be payable;

the interest rate, which may be fixed or variable, or the method for determining the rate and the date interest will begin to accrue, the date or dates interest will be payable and the record dates for interest payment dates or the method for determining such dates;

whether or not the debt securities will be secured or unsecured, and the terms of any secured debt;

the terms of the subordination of any series of subordinated debt;

the place or places where payments will be payable;

our right, if any, to defer payment of interest and the maximum length of any such deferral period;

the date, if any, after which, and the price at which, we may, at our option, redeem the series of debt securities pursuant to any optional redemption provisions;

the date, if any, on which, and the price at which we are obligated, pursuant to any mandatory sinking fund provisions or otherwise, to redeem, or at the holder’s option to purchase, the series of debt securities;

whether the indenture will restrict our ability to pay dividends, or will require us to maintain any asset ratios or reserves;

 

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whether we will be restricted from incurring any additional indebtedness;

a discussion of any material or special U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to a series of debt securities;

the denominations in which we will issue the series of debt securities, if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof; and

any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of, or restrictions on, the debt securities.

 

We may issue debt securities that provide for an amount less than their stated principal amount to be due and payable upon declaration of acceleration of their maturity pursuant to the terms of the indenture. We will provide you with information on the federal income tax considerations and other special considerations applicable to any of these debt securities in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

Conversion or Exchange Rights

 

We will set forth in the prospectus supplement the terms, if any, on which a series of debt securities may be convertible into or exchangeable for our common shares or our other securities. We will include provisions as to whether conversion or exchange is mandatory, at the option of the holder or at our option. We may include provisions pursuant to which the number of our common shares or our other securities that the holders of the series of debt securities receive would be subject to adjustment.

 

Consolidation, Merger or Sale; No Protection in Event of a Change of Control or Highly Leveraged Transaction

 

The indentures do not contain any covenant that restricts our ability to merge or consolidate, or sell, convey, transfer or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of our assets. However, any successor to or acquirer of such assets must assume all of our obligations under the indentures or the debt securities, as appropriate.

 

Unless we state otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, the debt securities will not contain any provisions that may afford holders of the debt securities protection in the event we have a change of control or in the event of a highly leveraged transaction (whether or not such transaction results in a change of control), which could adversely affect holders of debt securities.

 

Events of Default Under the Indenture

 

The following are events of default under the indentures with respect to any series of debt securities that we may issue:

 

if we fail to pay interest when due and our failure continues for 90 days and the time for payment has not been extended or deferred;

if we fail to pay the principal, or premium, if any, when due and the time for payment has not been extended or delayed;

if we fail to observe or perform any other covenant set forth in the debt securities of such series or the applicable indentures, other than a covenant specifically relating to and for the benefit of holders of another series of debt securities, and our failure continues for 90 days after we receive written notice from the debenture trustee or holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of the applicable series; and

if specified events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization occur as to us.

 

No event of default with respect to a particular series of debt securities (except as to certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization) necessarily constitutes an event of default with respect to any other series of debt securities. The occurrence of an event of default may constitute an event of default under any bank credit agreements we may have in existence from time to time. In addition, the occurrence of certain events of default or an acceleration under the indenture may constitute an event of default under certain of our other indebtedness outstanding from time to time.

 

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If an event of default with respect to debt securities of any series at the time outstanding occurs and is continuing, then the trustee or the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series may, by a notice in writing to us (and to the debenture trustee if given by the holders), declare to be due and payable immediately the principal (or, if the debt securities of that series are discount securities, that portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms of that series) of and premium and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all debt securities of that series. Before a judgment or decree for payment of the money due has been obtained with respect to debt securities of any series, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series (or, at a meeting of holders of such series at which a quorum is present, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the debt securities of such series represented at such meeting) may rescind and annul the acceleration if all events of default, other than the non-payment of accelerated principal, premium, if any, and interest, if any, with respect to debt securities of that series, have been cured or waived as provided in the applicable indenture (including payments or deposits in respect of principal, premium or interest that had become due other than as a result of such acceleration). We refer you to the prospectus supplement relating to any series of debt securities that are discount securities for the particular provisions relating to acceleration of a portion of the principal amount of such discount securities upon the occurrence of an event of default.

 

Subject to the terms of the indentures, if an event of default under an indenture shall occur and be continuing, the debenture trustee will be under no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers under such indenture at the request or direction of any of the holders of the applicable series of debt securities, unless such holders have offered the debenture trustee reasonable indemnity. The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series will have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the debenture trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the debenture trustee, with respect to the debt securities of that series, provided that:

 

the direction so given by the holder is not in conflict with any law or the applicable indenture; and

subject to its duties under the Trust Indenture Act, the debenture trustee need not take any action that might involve it in personal liability or might be unduly prejudicial to the holders not involved in the proceeding.

 

A holder of the debt securities of any series will only have the right to institute a proceeding under the indentures or to appoint a receiver or trustee, or to seek other remedies if:

 

the holder previously has given written notice to the debenture trustee of a continuing event of default with respect to that series;

the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series have made written request, and such holders have offered reasonable indemnity to the debenture trustee to institute the proceeding as trustee; and

the debenture trustee does not institute the proceeding, and does not receive from the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series (or at a meeting of holders of such series at which a quorum is present, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the debt securities of such series represented at such meeting) other conflicting directions within 60 days after the notice, request and offer.

 

These limitations do not apply to a suit instituted by a holder of debt securities if we default in the payment of the principal, premium, if any, or interest on, the debt securities.

 

We will periodically file statements with the applicable debenture trustee regarding our compliance with specified covenants in the applicable indenture.

 

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Modification of Indenture; Waiver

 

The debenture trustee and we may change the applicable indenture without the consent of any holders with respect to specific matters, including:

 

to fix any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency in the indenture; and

to change anything that does not materially adversely affect the interests of any holder of debt securities of any series issued pursuant to such indenture.

 

In addition, under the indentures, the rights of holders of a series of debt securities may be changed by us and the debenture trustee with the written consent of the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of each series (or, at a meeting of holders of such series at which a quorum is present, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the debt securities of such series represented at such meeting) that is affected. However, the debenture trustee and we may make the following changes only with the consent of each holder of any outstanding debt securities affected:

 

extending the fixed maturity of the series of debt securities;

reducing the principal amount, reducing the rate of or extending the time of payment of interest, or any premium payable upon the redemption of any debt securities;

reducing the principal amount of discount securities payable upon acceleration of maturity;

making the principal of or premium or interest on any debt security payable in currency other than that stated in the debt security; or

reducing the percentage of debt securities, the holders of which are required to consent to any amendment or waiver.

 

Except for certain specified provisions, the holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series (or, at a meeting of holders of such series at which a quorum is present, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the debt securities of such series represented at such meeting) may on behalf of the holders of all debt securities of that series waive our compliance with provisions of the indenture. The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may on behalf of the holders of all the debt securities of such series waive any past default under the indenture with respect to that series and its consequences, except a default in the payment of the principal of, premium or any interest on any debt security of that series or in respect of a covenant or provision, which cannot be modified or amended without the consent of the holder of each outstanding debt security of the series affected; provided, however, that the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may rescind an acceleration and its consequences, including any related payment default that resulted from the acceleration.

 

Discharge

 

Each indenture provides that we can elect to be discharged from our obligations with respect to one or more series of debt securities, except for obligations to:

 

the transfer or exchange of debt securities of the series;

replace stolen, lost or mutilated debt securities of the series;

maintain paying agencies;

hold monies for payment in trust;

compensate and indemnify the trustee; and

appoint any successor trustee.

 

In order to exercise our rights to be discharged with respect to a series, we must deposit with the trustee money or government obligations sufficient to pay all the principal of, the premium, if any, and interest on, the debt securities of the series on the dates payments are due.

 

Form, Exchange and Transfer

 

We will issue the debt securities of each series only in fully registered form without coupons and, unless we otherwise specify in the applicable prospectus supplement, in denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof. The indentures provide that we may issue debt securities of a series in temporary or permanent global form and as book-entry securities that will be deposited with, or on behalf of, The Depository Trust Company or another depositary named by us and identified in a prospectus supplement with respect to that series.

 

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At the option of the holder, subject to the terms of the indentures and the limitations applicable to global securities described in the applicable prospectus supplement, the holder of the debt securities of any series can exchange the debt securities for other debt securities of the same series, in any authorized denomination and of like tenor and aggregate principal amount.

 

Subject to the terms of the indentures and the limitations applicable to global securities set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the debt securities may present the debt securities for exchange or for registration of transfer, duly endorsed or with the form of transfer endorsed thereon duly executed if so required by us or the security registrar, at the office of the security registrar or at the office of any transfer agent designated by us for this purpose. Unless otherwise provided in the debt securities that the holder presents for transfer or exchange or in the applicable indenture, we will make no service charge for any registration of transfer or exchange, but we may require payment of any taxes or other governmental charges.

 

We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement the security registrar, and any transfer agent in addition to the security registrar, that we initially designate for any debt securities. We may at any time designate additional transfer agents or rescind the designation of any transfer agent or approve a change in the office through which any transfer agent acts, except that we will be required to maintain a transfer agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of each series.

 

If we elect to redeem the debt securities of any series, we will not be required to:

 

issue, register the transfer of, or exchange any debt securities of that series during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the day of mailing of a notice of redemption of any debt securities that may be selected for redemption and ending at the close of business on the day of the mailing; or

register the transfer of or exchange any debt securities so selected for redemption, in whole or in part, except the unredeemed portion of any debt securities we are redeeming in part.

 

Information Concerning the Debenture Trustee

 

The debenture trustee, other than during the occurrence and continuance of an event of default under the applicable indenture, undertakes to perform only those duties as are specifically set forth in the applicable indenture. Upon an event of default under an indenture, the debenture trustee under such indenture must use the same degree of care as a prudent person would exercise or use in the conduct of his or her own affairs. Subject to this provision, the debenture trustee is under no obligation to exercise any of the powers given it by the indentures at the request of any holder of debt securities unless it is offered reasonable security and indemnity against the costs, expenses and liabilities that it might incur.

 

Payment and Paying Agents

 

Unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will make payment of the interest on any debt securities on any interest payment date to the person in whose name the debt securities, or one or more predecessor securities, are registered at the close of business on the regular record date for the interest.

 

We will pay principal of and any premium and interest on the debt securities of a particular series at the office of the paying agents designated by us, except that unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, will we make interest payments by check which we will mail to the holder. Unless we otherwise indicate in a prospectus supplement, we will designate the corporate trust office of the debenture trustee in the City of New York as our sole paying agent for payments with respect to debt securities of each series. We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement any other paying agents that we initially designate for the debt securities of a particular series. We will maintain a paying agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of a particular series.

 

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All money we pay to a paying agent or the debenture trustee for the payment of the principal of or any premium or interest on any debt securities which remains unclaimed at the end of two years after such principal, premium or interest has become due and payable will be repaid to us, and the holder of the security thereafter may look only to us for payment thereof.

 

Governing Law

 

The indentures and the debt securities will be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of New York, except to the extent that the Trust Indenture Act is applicable.

 

Subordination of Subordinated Debt Securities

 

Our obligations pursuant to any subordinated debt securities will be unsecured and will be subordinate and junior in priority of payment to certain of our other indebtedness to the extent described in a prospectus supplement. The subordinated indenture does not limit the amount of senior indebtedness we may incur. It also does not limit us from issuing any other secured or unsecured debt.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

 

General

 

We may issue warrants to purchase our common shares, preferred shares and/or debt securities in one or more series together with other securities or separately, as described in the applicable prospectus supplement. Below is a description of certain general terms and provisions of the warrants that we may offer. Particular terms of the warrants will be described in the warrant agreements and the prospectus supplement relating to the warrants.

 

The applicable prospectus supplement will contain, where applicable, the following terms of and other information relating to the warrants:

 

the specific designation and aggregate number of, and the price at which we will issue, the warrants;

the currency or currency units in which the offering price, if any, and the exercise price are payable;

the designation, amount and terms of the securities purchasable upon exercise of the warrants;

if applicable, the exercise price for our common shares and the number of our common shares to be received upon exercise of the warrants;

if applicable, the exercise price for our preferred shares, the number of preferred shares to be received upon exercise, and a description of that series of our preferred shares;

if applicable, the exercise price for our debt securities, the amount of debt securities to be received upon exercise, and a description of that series of debt securities;

the date on which the right to exercise the warrants will begin and the date on which that right will expire or, if you may not continuously exercise the warrants throughout that period, the specific date or dates on which you may exercise the warrants;

whether the warrants will be issued in fully registered form or bearer form, in definitive or global form or in any combination of these forms, although, in any case, the form of a warrant included in a unit will correspond to the form of the unit and of any security included in that unit;

any applicable material U.S. federal income tax consequences;

the identity of the warrant agent for the warrants and of any other depositaries, execution or paying agents, transfer agents, registrars or other agents;

the proposed listing, if any, of the warrants or any securities purchasable upon exercise of the warrants on any securities exchange;

if applicable, the date from and after which the warrants and the common shares, preferred shares and/or debt securities will be separately transferable;

if applicable, the minimum or maximum amount of the warrants that may be exercised at any one time;

information with respect to book-entry procedures, if any;

the anti-dilution provisions of the warrants, if any;

any redemption or call provisions;

whether the warrants may be sold separately or with other securities as parts of units;

the governing law of the warrants; and

any additional terms of the warrants, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the exchange and exercise of the warrants.

 

The transfer agent and registrar for any warrants we offer will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

Outstanding Warrants

 

Public Warrants

 

As of August 31, 2022, there were an aggregate of 15,000,000 outstanding public warrants held of record by one holder, which entitle the holder to acquire Common Shares. Each whole public warrant entitles the registered holder to purchase one Common Share at an exercise price of $11.50 per share, subject to adjustment as discussed below, beginning on October 9, 2021. Pursuant to the warrant agreement, a warrant holder may exercise its warrants only for a whole number of Common Shares. This means only a whole warrant may be exercised at a given time by a warrant holder. No fractional warrants will be issued upon separation of the units, and only whole warrants will trade. Accordingly, unless you hold at least three units, you will not be able to receive or trade a whole warrant. The warrants will expire on September 9, 2026, at 5:00 p.m., New York City time, or earlier upon redemption or liquidation.

 

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We will not be obligated to deliver any Common Shares pursuant to the exercise of a warrant and will have no obligation to settle such warrant exercise unless a registration statement under the Securities Act with respect to the Common Shares underlying the warrants is then effective and a prospectus relating thereto is current, subject to our satisfying our obligations described below with respect to registration, or a valid exemption from registration is available. No warrant will be exercisable and we will not be obligated to issue a Common Share upon exercise of a warrant unless the Common Share issuable upon such warrant exercise has been registered, qualified or deemed to be exempt under the securities laws of the state of residence of the registered holder of the warrants. In the event that the conditions in the two immediately preceding sentences are not satisfied with respect to a warrant, the holder of such warrant will not be entitled to exercise such warrant and such warrant may have no value and expire worthless. In no event will we be required to net cash settle any warrant. In the event that a registration statement is not effective for the exercised warrants, the purchaser of a unit containing such warrant will have paid the full purchase price for the unit solely for the Common Share underlying such unit.

 

Redemptions

 

Once the warrants become exercisable, we may call the warrants for redemption:

 

in whole and not in part;

at a price of $0.01 per warrant;

upon not less than 30 days’ prior written notice of redemption to each warrant holder; and

if, and only if, the closing price of the Common Shares equals or exceeds $18.00 per share (as adjusted for share splits, share capitalizations, reorganizations, recapitalizations and the like) for any 20 trading days within a 30-trading day period ending on the third trading day prior to the date on which notice of the redemption is given to the warrant holder.

 

If and when the warrants become redeemable by us, we may exercise our redemption right even if we are unable to register or qualify the underlying securities for sale under all applicable state securities laws.

 

We have established the last of the redemption criterion discussed above to prevent a redemption call unless there is at the time of the call a significant premium to the warrant exercise price. If the foregoing conditions are satisfied and we issue a notice of redemption of the warrants, each warrant holder will be entitled to exercise his, her or its warrant prior to the scheduled redemption date. However, the price of the Common Shares may fall below the $18.00 redemption trigger price (as adjusted for share splits, share capitalizations, reorganizations, recapitalizations and the like) as well as the $11.50 (for whole shares) warrant exercise price after the redemption notice is issued.

 

Redemption Procedures and Cashless Exercise

 

If we call the warrants for redemption when the price per share of Common Shares equals or exceeds $18.00, our management will have the option to require any holder that wishes to exercise his, her or its warrant to do so on a “cashless basis” beginning on the third trading day prior to the date on which notice of the redemption is given to the holders of warrants. In determining whether to require all holders to exercise their warrants on a “cashless basis,” our management will consider, among other factors, our cash position, the number of warrants that are outstanding and the dilutive effect on our shareholders of issuing the maximum number of Common Shares issuable upon the exercise of our warrants. If our management takes advantage of this option, all holders of warrants would pay the exercise price by surrendering their warrants for that number of shares equal to the lesser of (A) the quotient obtained by dividing (x) the product of the number of Common Shares underlying the warrants, multiplied by the excess of the “fair market value” (defined below) over the exercise price of the warrants by (y) the fair market value and (B) 0.365. The “fair market value” will mean the average closing price of the Common Shares for the ten (10) trading days ending on the third trading day prior to the date on which the notice of redemption is sent to the holders of warrants. If our management takes advantage of this option, the notice of redemption will contain the information necessary to calculate the number of Common Shares to be received upon exercise of the warrants, including the “fair market value” in such case. Requiring a cashless exercise in this manner will reduce the number of shares to be issued and thereby lessen the dilutive effect of a warrant redemption. We believe this feature is an attractive option to us if we do not need the cash from the exercise of the warrants after our initial business combination. If we call our warrants for redemption and our management team does not take advantage of this option, the permitted transferees of Sustainable Opportunities Holdings LLC would still be entitled to exercise their private placement warrants for cash or on a cashless basis using the same formula described above that other warrant holders would have been required to use had all warrant holders been required to exercise their warrants on a cashless basis, as described in more detail below.

 

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A holder of a warrant may notify us in writing in the event it elects to be subject to a requirement that such holder will not have the right to exercise such warrant, to the extent that after giving effect to such exercise, such person (together with such person’s affiliates), to the warrant agent’s actual knowledge, would beneficially own in excess of 4.9% or 9.8% (as specified by the holder) of the Common Shares issued and outstanding immediately after giving effect to such exercise.

 

Anti-dilution Adjustments

 

If the number of outstanding Common Shares is increased by a capitalization or share dividend payable in Common Shares, or by a split-up of common shares or other similar event, then, on the effective date of such capitalization or share dividend, split-up or similar event, the number of Common Shares issuable on exercise of each warrant will be increased in proportion to such increase in the outstanding common shares. A rights offering made to all or substantially all holders of common shares entitling holders to purchase Common Shares at a price less than the “historical fair market value” (as defined below) will be deemed a share dividend of a number of Common Shares equal to the product of (i) the number of Common Shares actually sold in such rights offering (or issuable under any other equity securities sold in such rights offering that are convertible into or exercisable for Common Shares) and (ii) one minus the quotient of (x) the price per Common Shares paid in such rights offering and (y) the historical fair market value. For these purposes, (i) if the rights offering is for securities convertible into or exercisable for Class A ordinary shares, in determining the price payable for Common Shares, there will be taken into account any consideration received for such rights, as well as any additional amount payable upon exercise or conversion and (ii) “historical fair market value” means the volume weighted average price of Common Shares as reported during the 10 trading day period ending on the trading day prior to the first date on which the Common Shares trade on the applicable exchange or in the applicable market, regular way, without the right to receive such rights.

 

In addition, if we, at any time while the warrants are outstanding and unexpired, pay a dividend or make a distribution in cash, securities or other assets to all or substantially all the holders of Common Shares on account of such shares (or other securities into which the warrants are convertible), other than (a) as described above, (b) any cash dividends or cash distributions which, when combined on a per share basis with all other cash dividends and cash distributions paid on the Common Shares during the 365-day period ending on the date of declaration of such dividend or distribution does not exceed $0.50 (as adjusted to appropriately reflect any other adjustments and excluding cash dividends or cash distributions that resulted in an adjustment to the exercise price or to the number of Common Shares issuable on exercise of each warrant) but only with respect to the amount of the aggregate cash dividends or cash distributions equal to or less than $0.50 per share, or (c) to satisfy the redemption rights of the holders of Common Shares in connection with the Business Combination, then the warrant exercise price will be decreased, effective immediately after the effective date of such event, by the amount of cash and/or the fair market value of any securities or other assets paid on each share of Common Shares in respect of such event.

 

If the number of outstanding Common Shares is decreased by a consolidation, combination, reverse share split or reclassification of share of Common Shares or other similar event, then, on the effective date of such consolidation, combination, reverse share split, reclassification or similar event, the number of Common Shares issuable on exercise of each warrant will be decreased in proportion to such decrease in outstanding Common Shares.

 

Whenever the number of Common Shares purchasable upon the exercise of the warrants is adjusted, as described above, the warrant exercise price will be adjusted by multiplying the warrant exercise price immediately prior to such adjustment by a fraction (x) the numerator of which will be the number of Common Shares purchasable upon the exercise of the warrants immediately prior to such adjustment and (y) the denominator of which will be the number of Common Shares so purchasable immediately thereafter.

 

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In case of any reclassification or reorganization of the outstanding Common Shares (other than those described above or that solely affects the par value of such Common Shares), or in the case of any merger or consolidation of with or into another company (other than a consolidation or merger in which we are the continuing company and that does not result in any reclassification or reorganization of our outstanding Common Shares), or in the case of any sale or conveyance to another company or entity of the assets or other property of us as an entirety or substantially as an entirety in connection with which we are dissolved, the holders of the warrants will thereafter have the right to purchase and receive, upon the basis and upon the terms and conditions specified in the warrants and in lieu of the Common Shares immediately theretofore purchasable and receivable upon the exercise of the rights represented thereby, the kind and amount of Common Shares or other securities or property (including cash) receivable upon such reclassification, reorganization, merger or consolidation, or upon a dissolution following any such sale or transfer, that the holder of the warrants would have received if such holder had exercised their warrants immediately prior to such event. If less than 70% of the consideration receivable by the holders of Common Shares in such a transaction is payable in the form of Common Shares in the successor entity that is listed for trading on a national securities exchange or is quoted in an established over-the-counter market, or is to be so listed for trading or quoted immediately following such event, and if the registered holder of the warrant properly exercises the warrant within thirty (30) days following public disclosure of such transaction, the warrant exercise price will be reduced as specified in the warrant agreement based on the Black-Scholes value (as defined in the warrant agreement) of the warrant. The purpose of such exercise price reduction is to provide additional value to holders of the warrants when an extraordinary transaction occurs during the exercise period of the warrants pursuant to which the holders of the warrants otherwise do not receive the full potential value of the warrants.

 

The warrants are issued in registered form under a warrant agreement between Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company, as warrant agent, and us. The warrant agreement provides that the terms of the warrants may be amended without the consent of any holder to cure any ambiguity or correct any defective provision or correct any mistake, including to conform the provisions of the warrant agreement to the description of the terms of the warrants and the warrant agreement set forth in SOAC’s prospectus for its initial public offering, but requires the approval by the holders of at least 50% of the then outstanding public warrants to make any change that adversely affects the interests of the registered holders. You should review a copy of the warrant agreement, which is filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, for a complete description of the terms and conditions applicable to the warrants.

 

The warrant holders do not have the rights or privileges of holders of Common Shares and any voting rights until they exercise their warrants and receive Common Shares.

 

No fractional warrants will be issued upon separation of the units and only whole warrants will trade. If, upon exercise of the warrants, a holder would be entitled to receive a fractional interest in a share, we will, upon exercise, round down to the nearest whole number the number of Common Shares to be issued to the warrant holder.

 

Warrant Agent and Registrar

 

The warrant agent for our public warrants is Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company.

 

Stock Exchange Listing

 

Our public warrants are listed for trading on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “TMCWW”.

 

Private Placement Warrants

 

As of August 31, 2022, there were 9,500,000 private placement warrants outstanding held of record by 32 holders. The private placement warrants (including the Common Shares issuable upon exercise of the private placement warrants) were not transferable, assignable or salable until October 9, 2021, except pursuant to limited exceptions to our officers and directors and other persons or entities affiliates with the initial purchasers of the private placement warrants, and they are not redeemable by us, except as described above when the prices per share of Common Shares equals or exceeds $10.00, so long as they are held by SOAC or its permitted transferees. SOAC, or its permitted transferees, has the option to exercise the private placement warrants on a cashless basis. Except as described below, the private placement warrants have terms and provisions that are identical to those of the public warrants. If the private placement warrants are held by holders other than SOAC or its permitted transferees, the private placement warrants will be redeemable by us and exercisable by the holders on the same basis as the public warrants.

 

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Except as described above regarding redemption procedures and cashless exercise in respect of the public warrants, if holders of the private placement warrants elect to exercise them on a cashless basis, they would pay the exercise price by surrendering his, her or its warrants for that number of Common Shares equal to the quotient obtained by dividing (x) the product of the number of Common Shares underlying the warrants, multiplied by the excess of the “fair market value” (defined below) over the exercise price of the warrants by (y) the fair market value. The “fair market value” shall mean the average reported closing price of the Common Shares for the ten (10) trading days ending on the third trading day prior to the date on which the notice of warrant exercise is sent to the warrant agent.

 

Allseas Warrant

 

On March 4, 2021, DeepGreen issued a warrant to Allseas Group S.A., or the Allseas Warrant, which shall vest upon successful completion of a prescribed project, referred to as the PMTS, and become exercisable for a maximum of 11,578,620 Common Shares (as it may be adjusted based on the formula described therein) at a purchase price of $0.01 per share. A maximum of 11.6 million warrants to purchase common shares will vest if the PMTS is completed by September 30, 2023, gradually decreasing to 5.8 million warrants to purchase Common Shares if PMTS is completed after September 30, 2025.  The Allseas Warrant shall vest only upon (and not before) the successful completion of PMTS and will expire on September 30, 2026.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

 

The following description, together with the additional information we may include in any applicable prospectus supplements, summarizes the material terms and provisions of the units that we may offer under this prospectus. While the terms summarized below will apply generally to any units that we may offer, we will describe the particular terms of any series of units in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement. If we indicate in the prospectus supplement, the terms of any units offered under that prospectus supplement may differ from the terms described below. Specific unit agreements will contain additional important terms and provisions and will be incorporated by reference as an exhibit to the registration statement that includes this prospectus.

 

General

 

We may issue units consisting of debt securities, common shares, preferred shares, or warrants, for the purchase of common shares and/or preferred shares in one or more series, in any combination. Each unit will be issued so that the holder of the unit is also the holder of each security included in the unit. Thus, the holder of a unit will have the rights and obligations of a holder of each included security. The unit agreement under which a unit is issued may provide that the securities included in the unit may not be held or transferred separately, at any time or at any time before a specified date.

 

We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms of the series of units being offered, including:

 

the designation and terms of the units and of the securities comprising the units, including whether and under what circumstances those securities may be held or transferred separately;

any provisions of the governing unit agreement that differ from those described below;

the governing law of the unit agreement; and

any provisions for the issuance, payment, settlement, transfer or exchange of the units or of the securities comprising the units.

 

We may issue units in such amounts and in such numbers of distinct series as we determine.

 

The provisions described in this section, as well as those described under “Description of Common Shares and Special Shares,” “Description of Preferred Shares,” “Description of Debt Securities” and “Description of Warrants” will apply to each unit, as applicable, and to any common share, preferred share or warrant included in each unit, as applicable.

 

Unit Agent

 

The name and address of the unit agent for any units we offer will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

Enforceability of Rights by Holders of Units

 

Each unit agent will act solely as our agent under the applicable unit agreement and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust with any holder of any unit. A single bank or trust company may act as unit agent for more than one series of units. A unit agent will have no duty or responsibility in case of any default by us under the applicable unit agreement or unit, including any duty or responsibility to initiate any proceedings at law or otherwise, or to make any demand upon us. Any holder of a unit may, without the consent of the related unit agent or the holder of any other unit, enforce by appropriate legal action its rights as holder under any security included in the unit.

 

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CERTAIN IMPORTANT PROVISIONS OF THE NOTICE OF ARTICLES AND ARTICLES AND THE BCBCA

 

The following is a summary of certain important provisions of our Articles and certain related sections of the BCBCA. Please note that this is only a summary and is not intended to be exhaustive. This summary is subject to, and is qualified in its entirety by reference to, the provisions of our Articles and the BCBCA.

 

Stated Objects or Purposes

 

The notice of articles and articles do not contain stated objects or purposes and do not place any limitations on the business that we may carry on.

 

Directors

 

Power to vote on matters in which a director is materially interested. Under the BCBCA, a director or senior officer of a company is liable to account to the company for any profit that accrues to the director or senior officer under or as a result of a contract or transaction in which the director or officer holds a disclosable interest if the contract or transaction is material to the company, the company has entered, or proposes to enter, into the contract or transaction, and either the director or senior officer has a material interest in the contract or transaction or is a director or senior officer of, or has a material interest in, a person who has a material interest in the contract or transaction, unless otherwise provided for in the BCBCA. A director or senior officer does not hold a disclosable interest in a contract or transaction if the contract or transaction: (i) is an arrangement by way of security granted by the company for money loaned to, or obligations undertaken by, the director or senior officer, or a person in whom the director or senior officer has a material interest, for the benefit the company or for one of our affiliates’ benefit; (ii) relates to an indemnity or insurance permitted under the BCBCA; (iii) relates to the remuneration of the director or senior officer in his or her capacity as director, officer, employee or agent of the company or of one of its affiliates; (iv) relates to a loan to the company and the director or senior officer, or a person in whom the director or senior officer has a material interest, is the guarantor of some or all of the loan; or (v) is with a company that is affiliated to the company and the director or senior officer is also a director or senior officer of that company or an affiliate of that company.

 

A director or senior officer who holds a disclosable interest may also be liable to account to the company for any profit that accrues to the director or senior officer under or as a result of a contract or transaction in which the director or senior officer holds a disclosable interest, unless the contract or transaction is: (i) approved by the other non-interested directors (unless all directors have a disclosable interest) or by a special resolution of the shareholders, after the nature and extent of the disclosable interest has been disclosed to the directors or shareholders, as applicable, or (ii) the contract or transaction was entered into before the individual became a director or senior officer, the disclosable interest was disclosed to the other directors or shareholders and the director or senior officer who holds the disclosable interest does not vote on any decision or resolution touching on the contract or transaction. Directors and senior officers are also required to comply with certain other relevant provisions of the BCBCA regarding conflicts of interest. A director who holds such disclosable interest in respect of any material contract or transaction into which the company has entered or propose to enter may be required to absent himself or herself from the meeting while discussions and voting with respect to the matter are taking place.

 

Directors’ power to determine the remuneration of directors. The remuneration of our directors, if any, may be determined by our directors subject to our Articles. The remuneration may be in addition to any salary or other remuneration paid to any of our employees (including executive officers) who are also directors.

 

Number of shares required to be owned by a director. Our Articles do not and the BCBCA does not provide that a director is required to hold any of Common Shares as a qualification for holding his or her office.

 

Shareholder Meetings

 

Subject to applicable exchange requirements, and the BCBCA, we will have to hold a general meeting of our shareholders at least once every year at a time and place determined by our board of directors, provided that the meeting must not be held later than 15 months after the preceding annual general meeting, unless an extension is obtained. A meeting of our shareholders may be held anywhere in or outside British Columbia. The board of directors may also determine that shareholders may attend a meeting of shareholders by means of telephone, electronic or other communications facilities that permit all participants to communicate with each other during the meeting.

 

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A notice to convene a meeting, specifying the date, time and location of the meeting, and, where a meeting is to consider special business, the general nature of the special business, among other things, must be sent to each shareholder entitled to attend the meeting and to each director and the auditors, so long that the company is a public company, not less than 21 days and no more than two months prior to the meeting, although, as a result of applicable securities laws, the minimum time for notice is effectively longer in most circumstances. Under the BCBCA, shareholders entitled to notice of a meeting may waive or reduce the period of notice for that meeting, provided applicable securities laws are met. The accidental omission to send notice of any meeting of shareholders to, or the non-receipt of any notice by, any person entitled to notice does not invalidate any proceedings at that meeting.

 

A quorum for meetings of shareholders is present if at least two shareholders who, in the aggregate, hold at least 5% of the issued shares entitled to vote at the meeting, are present in person or represented by proxy at the meeting. If a quorum is not present within one half hour from the time set for the opening of any meeting of shareholders, the meeting stands adjourned to the same day in the next week at the same time and place, unless the meeting was requisitioned by shareholders, in which case the meeting is dissolved.

 

Holders of Common Shares are entitled to attend and vote at meetings of our shareholders except meetings at which only holders another class of shares are entitled to vote. Except as otherwise provided with respect to any particular series of preferred shares or Special Shares, and except as otherwise required by law, the holders of our preferred shares and/or Special Shares are not entitled to vote at any meetings of our shareholders. Our directors and officers, our auditor and any other persons invited by our directors or the chair of the meeting are entitled to attend any meeting of our shareholders but will not be counted in the quorum or be entitled to vote at the meeting unless he or she is a shareholder or proxyholder entitled to vote at the meeting.

 

Shareholder Proposals and Advance Notice Procedures

 

Under the BCBCA, qualified shareholders holding at least either (i) 1% of the Common Shares or (ii) Common Shares with a fair market value in excess of CAD$2,000 may make proposals for matters to be considered at the annual general meeting of shareholders. Such proposals must be sent to us in advance of any proposed meeting by delivering a timely written notice in proper form to our registered office in accordance with the requirements of the BCBCA. The notice must include information on the business the shareholder intends to bring before the meeting. To be a qualified shareholder, a shareholder must currently be and have been a registered or beneficial owner of at least one Common Share for at least two years before the date of signing the proposal.

 

Certain advance notice provisions with respect to the election of our directors are included in the notice of articles and articles, referred to herein as the Advance Notice Provisions. The Advance Notice Provisions are intended to: (i) facilitate orderly and efficient annual general meetings or, where the need arises, special meetings; (ii) ensure that all shareholders receive adequate notice of board nominations and sufficient information with respect to all nominees; and (iii) allow shareholders to register an informed vote. Only persons who are nominated in accordance with the Advance Notice Provisions will be eligible for election as directors at any annual meeting of shareholders, or at any special meeting of shareholders if one of the purposes for which the special meeting was called was the election of directors.

 

Under the Advance Notice Provisions, a shareholder wishing to nominate a director would be required to provide us notice, in the prescribed form, within the prescribed time periods. These time periods include, (i) in the case of an annual meeting of shareholders (including annual and special meetings), not less than 30 days prior to the date of the annual meeting of shareholders; provided, that if the first public announcement of the date of the annual meeting of shareholders, referred to herein as the Notice Date, is less than 50 days before the meeting date, not later than the close of business on the 10th day following the Notice Date; and (ii) in the case of a special meeting (which is not also an annual meeting) of shareholders called for any purpose which includes electing directors, not later than the close of business on the 15th day following the Notice Date.

 

These provisions could have the effect of delaying until the next shareholder meeting the nomination of certain persons for director that are favored by the holders of a majority of our outstanding voting securities.

 

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Forum Selection

 

The notice of articles and articles include a forum selection provision that provides that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Supreme Court of British Columbia, Canada and the appellate courts therefrom, are the sole and exclusive forum for (i) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf; (ii) any action or proceeding asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any of our directors, officers, or other employees to our company; (iii) any action or proceeding asserting a claim arising pursuant to any provision of the BCBCA or the notice of articles and articles (as each may be amended from time to time); or (iv) any action or proceeding asserting a claim otherwise related to the relationships among us, our affiliates and our respective shareholders, directors and/or officers, but excluding claims related to our business or of such affiliates. The forum selection provision also provides that our securityholders are deemed to have consented to personal jurisdiction in the Province of British Columbia and to service of process on their counsel in any foreign action initiated in violation of the foregoing provisions. This provision does not apply to suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Securities Act or the Exchange Act, or the rules and regulations thereunder.

 

For claims brought under the Securities Act, Section 22 of the Securities Act creates concurrent jurisdiction for federal and state courts over all claims brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Securities Act or the rules and regulations thereunder and the notice of articles and articles provides that the federal district courts of the United States of America, to the fullest extent permitted by law, are the sole and exclusive forum for resolving any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act, referred to herein as the Federal Forum Provision. Application of the Federal Forum Provision means that suits brought by our shareholders to enforce any duty or liability created by the Securities Act must be brought in federal court and cannot be brought in state court.

 

Section 27 of the Exchange Act creates exclusive federal jurisdiction over all claims brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Exchange Act or the rules and regulations thereunder. Accordingly, actions by our shareholders to enforce any duty or liability created by the Exchange Act or the rules and regulations thereunder must be brought in federal court. Our shareholders will not be deemed to have waived our compliance with the federal securities laws and the regulations promulgated thereunder.

 

Any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring or holding any interest in any of Common Shares shall be deemed to have notice of and consented to the aforementioned forum selection provisions, including the Federal Forum Provision. Additionally, our shareholders cannot waive compliance with the federal securities laws and the rules and regulations thereunder. These provisions may limit our shareholders’ ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum they find favorable for disputes with us or our directors, officers, or other employees, which may discourage lawsuits against us and our directors, officers, and other employees. Alternatively, if a court were to find the choice of forum provision contained in the notice of articles and articles to be inapplicable or unenforceable in an action, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such action in other jurisdictions, which could harm our business, operating results and financial condition.

 

Limitation of Liability and Indemnification

 

Under the BCBCA, a company may indemnify: (i) a current or former director or officer of that company; (ii) a current or former director or officer of another company if, at the time such individual held such office, such company was an affiliate of the company, or if such individual held such office at the company’s request; or (iii) an individual who, at the request of the company, held, or holds, an equivalent position in another entity, or an indemnifiable person, against all judgments, penalties or fines, or amounts paid to settle a proceeding or an action, in respect of any legal proceeding or investigative action (whether current, threatened, pending or completed) in which he or she is involved because of that person’s position as an indemnifiable person, or an eligible proceeding, unless: (i) the individual did not act honestly and in good faith with a view to the best interests of such company or the other entity, as the case may be; or (ii) in the case of a proceeding other than a civil proceeding, the individual did not have reasonable grounds for believing that the individual’s conduct in respect of which proceeding was brought was lawful. A company cannot indemnify an indemnifiable person if it is prohibited from doing so under its articles or by applicable law. A company may pay, as they are incurred in advance of the final disposition of an eligible proceeding, the expenses actually and reasonably incurred, subject to the indemnifiable person providing an undertaking that such person will repay the amounts advanced if it is ultimately determined that the payment of such expenses is prohibited by the BCBCA.

 

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OWNERSHIP AND EXCHANGE CONTROLS

 

There is no limitation imposed by Canadian law or by the notice of articles and articles on the right of a non-resident to hold or vote Common Shares, other than discussed below.

 

Competition Act

 

Limitations on the ability to acquire and hold Common Shares may be imposed by the Competition Act (Canada). This legislation permits the Commissioner of Competition, or the Commissioner, to review any acquisition or establishment, directly or indirectly, including through the acquisition of shares, of control over or of a significant interest in us. This legislation grants the Commissioner jurisdiction, for up to one year after the acquisition has been substantially completed, to challenge this type of acquisition by seeking a remedial order, including an order to prohibit the acquisition or require divestitures, from the Canadian Competition Tribunal, which may be granted where the Competition Tribunal finds that the acquisition substantially prevents or lessens, or is likely to substantially prevent or lessen, competition.

 

This legislation also requires any person or persons who intend to acquire more than 20% of our voting shares or, if such person or persons already own more than 20% of our voting shares prior to the acquisition, more than 50% of our voting shares, to file a notification with the Canadian Competition Bureau if certain financial thresholds are exceeded. Where a notification is required, unless an exemption is available, the legislation prohibits completion of the acquisition until the expiration of the applicable statutory waiting period, unless the Commissioner either waives or terminates such waiting period or issues an advance ruling certificate. The Commissioner’s review of a notifiable transaction for substantive competition law considerations may take longer than the statutory waiting period.

 

Investment Canada Act

 

The Investment Canada Act requires each “non Canadian” (as defined in the Investment Canada Act) who acquires “control” of an existing “Canadian business,” to file a notification in prescribed form with the responsible federal government department or departments not later than 30 days after closing, provided the acquisition of control is not a reviewable transaction under the Investment Canada Act. Subject to certain exemptions, a transaction that is reviewable under the Investment Canada Act may not be implemented until an application for review has been filed and the responsible Minister of the federal cabinet has determined that the investment is likely to be of “net benefit to Canada” taking into account certain factors set out in the Investment Canada Act. Under the Investment Canada Act, an investment in Common Shares by a non-Canadian who is an investor originating from a country with which Canada has a free trade agreement, including a United States investor, and is not a state-owned enterprise, would be reviewable only if it were an investment to acquire control of us pursuant to the Investment Canada Act and our enterprise value (as determined pursuant to the Investment Canada Act and its regulations) was equal to or greater than the amount specified, which is currently CAD$1.711 billion. For most other investors who are not state-owned enterprises the threshold is currently CAD$1.141 billion for 2022.

 

The Investment Canada Act contains various rules to determine if there has been an acquisition of control. Generally, for purposes of determining whether an investor has acquired control of a corporation by acquiring shares, the following general rules apply, subject to certain exceptions: the acquisition of a majority of the undivided ownership interests in the voting shares of the corporation is deemed to be acquisition of control of that corporation; the acquisition of less than a majority, but one-third or more, of the voting shares of a corporation or of an equivalent undivided ownership interest in the voting shares of the corporation is presumed to be acquisition of control of that corporation unless it can be established that, on the acquisition, the corporation is not controlled in fact by the acquirer through the ownership of voting shares; and the acquisition of less than one-third (1/3) of the voting shares of a corporation or of an equivalent undivided ownership interest in the voting shares of the corporation is deemed not to be acquisition of control of that corporation.

 

Under the national-security-review regime in the Investment Canada Act, review on a discretionary basis may also be undertaken by the federal government in respect to a much broader range of investments by a non-Canadian to “acquire, in whole or part, or to establish an entity carrying on all or any part of its operations in Canada.” No financial threshold applies to a national-security review. The relevant test is whether such investment by a non-Canadian could be “injurious to national security.” The responsible ministers have broad discretion to determine whether an investor is a non-Canadian and therefore subject to national-security review. Review on national-security grounds is at the discretion of the responsible ministers, and may occur on a pre- or post-closing basis.

 

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Certain transactions relating to Common Shares will generally be exempt from the Investment Canada Act, subject to the federal government’s prerogative to conduct a national-security review, including:

 

the acquisition of Common Shares by a person in the ordinary course of that person’s business as a trader or dealer in securities;

the acquisition of control of us in connection with the realization of security granted for a loan or other financial assistance and not for any purpose related to the provisions of the Investment Canada Act; and

the acquisition of control of us by reason of an amalgamation, merger, consolidation or corporate reorganization following which the ultimate direct or indirect control in fact of us, through ownership of Common Shares, remains unchanged.

 

Other

 

There is no law, governmental decree or regulation in Canada that restricts the export or import of capital, or that would affect the remittance of dividends (if any) or other payments by us to non-resident holders of Common Shares, other than withholding tax requirements.

 

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MATERIAL U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS

 

The following discussion is a summary of material U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to you if you are a U.S. Holder (as defined below) of our Common Shares and/or public warrants. This discussion addresses only those U.S. Holders that hold our Common Shares and/or public warrants as capital assets within the meaning of Section 1221 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code (generally property held for investment). This summary does not discuss all aspects of U.S. federal income taxation that may be relevant to particular investors in light of their particular circumstances, or to investors subject to special tax rules, such as:

 

  financial institutions;

  insurance companies;

  mutual funds;

  pension plans;

  S corporations;

  broker-dealers;

  traders in securities that elect mark-to-market treatment;

  regulated investment companies;

  real estate investment trusts;

  trusts and estates;

  tax-exempt organizations (including private foundations);

  investors that hold our Common Shares or public warrants as part of a “straddle,” “hedge,” “conversion,” “synthetic security,” “constructive ownership transaction,” “constructive sale” or other integrated transaction for U.S. federal income tax purposes;

  investors subject to the alternative minimum tax provisions of the Code;

  U.S. Holders that have a functional currency other than the U.S. dollar;

  U.S. expatriates or former long-term residents of the United States;

  investors subject to the U.S. “inversion” rules;

  U.S. Holders owning or considered as owning (directly, indirectly, or through attribution) 5% (measured by vote or value) or more of our Common Shares;

  persons that acquired our Common Shares or public warrants pursuant to an exercise of employee share options, in connection with employee share incentive plans or otherwise as compensation as compensation;

  controlled foreign corporations;

  accrual method taxpayers that file applicable financial statements as described in Section 451(b) of the Code;
  passive foreign investment companies (except to the limited extent provided herein); and

  persons who are not U.S. Holders, all of whom may be subject to tax rules that differ materially from those summarized below.

 

This summary does not discuss any state, local, or non-U.S. tax considerations, any non-income tax (such as gift or estate tax) considerations, the alternative minimum tax or the Medicare tax on net investment income. If a partnership (including an entity or arrangement treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes) holds Common Shares or public warrants the tax treatment of a partner in such partnership will generally depend upon the status of the partner, the activities of the partnership and the partner and certain determinations made at the partner level. If you are a partner of a partnership holding Common Shares or public warrants, you are urged to consult your tax advisor regarding the tax consequences to you of the ownership and disposition of Common Shares or public warrants by the partnership.

 

This summary is based upon the Code, the U.S. Department of Treasury regulations, or Treasury Regulations, current administrative interpretations and practices of the Internal Revenue Service, or IRS, and judicial decisions, all as currently in effect and all of which are subject to differing interpretations or to change, possibly with retroactive effect. No assurance can be given that the IRS would not assert, or that a court would not sustain a position contrary to any of the tax considerations described below.

 

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For purposes of this discussion, a “U.S. Holder” is a beneficial owner of Common Shares or public warrants, as the case may be, that is:

 

  an individual who is a U.S. citizen or resident of the United States;

  a corporation (including an entity treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes) created or organized in or under the laws of the United States, any state thereof or the District of Columbia;

  an estate the income of which is includible in gross income for U.S. federal income tax purposes regardless of its source; or

  a trust (A) the administration of which is subject to the primary supervision of a U.S. court and which has one or more U.S. persons (within the meaning of the Code) who have the authority to control all substantial decisions of the trust or (B) that has in effect a valid election under applicable Treasury Regulations to be treated as a U.S. person.

 

Tax Consequences of Ownership and Disposition of Common Shares and Public Warrants

 

Dividends and Other Distributions on Common Shares

 

Subject to the PFIC rules discussed below under the heading “- Passive Foreign Investment Company Rules,” distributions on Common Shares will generally be taxable as a dividend for U.S. federal income tax purposes to the extent paid from the Company’s current or accumulated earnings and profits, as determined under U.S. federal income tax principles. Distributions in excess of the Company’s current and accumulated earnings and profits will constitute a return of capital that will be applied against and reduce (but not below zero) the U.S. Holder’s adjusted tax basis in its Common Shares. Any remaining excess will be treated as gain realized on the sale or other disposition of the Common Shares and will be treated as described below under the heading “- Tax Consequences of Ownership and Disposition of Common Shares and Public Warrants - Sale, Taxable Exchange or Other Taxable Disposition of Common Shares and Public Warrants.” The amount of any such distribution will include any amounts withheld by us (or another applicable withholding agent) in respect of Canadian income taxes. Any amount treated as dividend income will be treated as foreign-source dividend income. Amounts treated as dividends that the Company pays to a U.S. Holder that is a taxable corporation generally will be taxed at regular rates and will not qualify for the dividends received deduction generally allowed to U.S. corporations in respect of dividends received from other U.S. corporations. With respect to non-corporate U.S. Holders, under tax laws currently in effect and subject to certain exceptions (including, but not limited to, dividends treated as investment income for purposes of investment interest deduction limitations), dividends generally will be taxed at the lower applicable long-term capital gains rate only if Common Shares are readily tradable on an established securities market in the United States or the Company is eligible for benefits under an applicable tax treaty with the United States, and the Company is not treated as a PFIC with respect to such U.S. Holder at the time the dividend was paid or in the preceding year and provided certain holding period requirements are met. The amount of any dividend distribution paid in Canadian dollars will be the U.S. dollar amount calculated by reference to the exchange rate in effect on the date of actual or constructive receipt, regardless of whether the payment is in fact converted into U.S. dollars at that time. A U.S. Holder may have foreign currency gain or loss if the dividend is converted into U.S. dollars after the date of receipt.

 

Subject to applicable limitations, non-refundable Canadian income taxes withheld from dividends on Common Shares at a rate not exceeding the rate provided by the applicable treaty with the United States will be eligible for credit against the U.S. treaty beneficiary’s U.S. federal income tax liability. The rules governing foreign tax credits are complex and U.S. Holders are urged to consult their tax advisers regarding the creditability of foreign taxes in their particular circumstances. In lieu of claiming a foreign tax credit, a U.S. Holder may deduct foreign taxes, including any Canadian income tax, in computing their taxable income, subject to generally applicable limitations under U.S. law. An election to deduct foreign taxes instead of claiming foreign tax credits applies to all foreign taxes paid or accrued in the taxable year.

 

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Sale, Taxable Exchange or Other Taxable Disposition of Common Shares and Public Warrants

 

Subject to the PFIC rules discussed below under the heading “- Passive Foreign Investment Company Rules,” upon any sale, exchange or other taxable disposition of Common Shares or public warrants, a U.S. Holder generally will recognize gain or loss in an amount equal to the difference between (i) the sum of (x) the amount cash and (y) the fair market value of any other property, received in such sale, exchange or other taxable disposition and (ii) the U.S. Holder’s adjusted tax basis in such Common Shares or public warrants, in each case as calculated in U.S. dollars. If a U.S. Holder acquired such Common Shares or public warrants as part of a unit, the adjusted tax basis in the Common Shares or public warrants will be the portion of the acquisition cost allocated to the shares or warrants, respectively, or if such Common Shares were received upon exercise of public warrants, the initial basis of the Common Shares upon exercise of public warrants (generally determined as described below in “- Tax Consequences of Ownership and Disposition of Common Shares and Public Warrants - Exercise or Lapse of a Public Warrant”). Any such gain or loss generally will be capital gain or loss and will be long-term capital gain or loss if the U.S. Holder’s holding period for such Common Shares exceeds one (1) year. Long-term capital gain realized by a non-corporate U.S. Holder generally will be taxable at a reduced rate. The deduction of capital losses is subject to limitations. This gain or loss generally will be treated as U.S. source gain or loss.

 

Exercise or Lapse of a Public Warrant

 

A U.S. Holder generally will not recognize taxable gain or loss on the acquisition of a Common Share upon exercise of a public warrant for cash. The U.S. Holder’s tax basis in the Common Share received upon exercise of the public warrant generally will be an amount equal to the sum of the U.S. Holder’s initial investment in the public warrant (i.e., its tax basis, calculated in U.S. dollars) and the exercise price. The U.S. Holder’s holding period for a Common Share received upon exercise of the of a public warrant will begin on the day following the date of exercise (or possibly the date of exercise) of the public warrant and will not include the period during which the U.S. Holder held the public warrant. If a public warrant is allowed to lapse unexercised, a U.S. Holder generally will recognize a capital loss equal to such U.S. Holder’s tax basis in the warrant (calculated in U.S. dollars). Such loss will be long-term if the warrant has been held for more than one (1) year.

 

The tax consequences of a cashless exercise of a public warrant are not clear under current tax law. A cashless exercise may not be taxable, either because the exercise is not a realization event or because the exercise is treated as a recapitalization for U.S. federal income tax purposes. In either situation, a U.S. Holder’s tax basis in the shares of Common Shares received generally should equal the U.S. Holder’s tax basis in the public warrants. If the cashless exercise was not a realization event, it is unclear whether a U.S. Holder’s holding period for the Common Shares would be treated as commencing on the date of exercise of the public warrant or the day following the date of exercise of the public warrant. If the cashless exercise were treated as a recapitalization, the holding period of the shares of Common Shares received would include the holding period of the public warrant.

 

It is also possible that a cashless exercise may be treated in part as a taxable exchange in which gain or loss would be recognized. In such event, a U.S. Holder may be deemed to have surrendered a number of public warrants having a value equal to the exercise price for the total number of public warrants to be exercised. The U.S. Holder would recognize capital gain or loss in an amount equal to the difference between the fair market value of the public warrants deemed surrendered and the U.S. Holder’s tax basis in the public warrants deemed surrendered. In this case, a U.S. Holder’s tax basis in the shares of Common Shares received would equal the sum of the U.S. Holder’s tax basis in the public warrants exercised, and the exercise price of such public warrants. It is unclear whether a U.S. Holder’s holding period for the shares of Common Shares would commence on the date of exercise of the public warrant or the day following the date of exercise of the public warrant; in either case, the holding period will not include the period during which the U.S. Holder held the public warrant.

 

Due to the absence of authority on the U.S. federal income tax treatment of a cashless exercise, including when a U.S. Holder’s holding period would commence with respect to the shares of Common Shares received, there can be no assurance as to which, if any, of the alternative tax consequences and holding periods described above would be adopted by the IRS or a court of law. Accordingly, U.S. Holders are urged to consult their tax advisors regarding the tax consequences of a cashless exercise.

 

If the Company redeems public warrants for cash or if the Company purchases public warrants in an open market transaction, such redemption or purchase generally will be treated as a taxable disposition to the U.S. Holder, taxed as described above under “- Tax Consequences of Ownership and Disposition of Common Shares and Public Warrants - Sale, Taxable Exchange or Other Taxable Disposition of Common Shares and Public Warrants.”

 

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Adjustment to Exercise Price

 

Under Section 305 of the Code, if certain adjustments are made (or not made) to the number of shares to be issued upon the exercise of a public warrant or to the public warrant’s exercise price, a U.S. Holder may be deemed to have received a constructive distribution with respect to the warrant, which could result in adverse consequences for the U.S. Holder, including the inclusion of dividend income (with the consequences generally as described above under the heading “- Tax Consequences of Ownership and Disposition of Common Shares and Public Warrants - Dividends and Other Distributions on Common Shares”). The rules governing constructive distributions as a result of certain adjustments with respect to a public warrant are complex, and U.S. Holders are urged to consult their tax advisors on the tax consequences any such constructive distribution with respect to a public warrant.

 

Passive Foreign Investment Company Rules

 

The treatment of U.S. Holders of Common Shares and public warrants could be materially different from that described above if the Company is treated as a PFIC for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

 

If the Company is a PFIC for any taxable year, U.S. Holders of Common Shares or public warrants may be subject to adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences with respect to dispositions of, and distributions with respect to Common Shares, and may be subject to additional reporting requirements.

 

A non-U.S. corporation will be classified as a PFIC for U.S. federal income tax purposes if either (i) at least 75% of its gross income in a taxable year, including its pro rata share of the gross income of any corporation in which it is considered to own at least 25% of the shares by value, is passive income, or the Income Test or (ii) at least 50% of its assets in a taxable year (ordinarily determined based on fair market value and averaged quarterly over the year), including its pro rata share of the assets of any corporation in which it is considered to own at least 25% of the shares by value, are held for the production of, or produce, passive income, or the Asset Test. Passive income generally includes dividends, interest, rents and royalties (other than rents or royalties derived from the active conduct of a trade or business) and gains from the disposition of passive assets.

 

Based on our initial assessment, we do not believe that the Company was classified as a PFIC for U.S. federal income tax purposes for the taxable year ending December 31, 2021. However, the application of the PFIC rules is subject to uncertainty in several respects, and we cannot assure you that the IRS will not take a contrary position. Furthermore, whether the Company is classified as a PFIC is a factual determination that must be made annually after the close of each taxable year. Accordingly, there can be no assurance with respect to the Company’s status as a PFIC for the current or any future taxable year. Although PFIC status is generally determined annually, if the Company is determined to be a PFIC for any taxable year (or portion thereof) that is included in the holding period of a U.S. Holder of Common Shares and the U.S. Holder did not make either a qualifying electing fund, or QEF, election or a mark-to-market election, or collectively, the PFIC Elections, for the first taxable year of the Company in which it was treated as a PFIC, and in which the U.S. Holder held (or was deemed to hold) such shares, or such U.S. Holder does not otherwise make an applicable purging election described below, such U.S. Holder generally will be subject to special and adverse rules with respect to (i) any gain recognized by the U.S. Holder on the sale or other disposition of its Common Shares and (ii) any “excess distribution” made to the U.S. Holder (generally, any distributions to such U.S. Holder during a taxable year of the U.S. Holder that are greater than 125% of the average annual distributions received by such U.S. Holder in respect of the Common Shares during the three preceding taxable years of such U.S. Holder or, if shorter, such U.S. Holder’s holding period for the Common Shares).

 

Under these rules:

 

  the U.S. Holder’s gain or excess distribution will be allocated ratably over the U.S. Holder’s holding period for the Common Shares;

  the amount allocated to the U.S. Holder’s taxable year in which the U.S. Holder recognized the gain or received the excess distribution, and to any period in the U.S. Holder’s holding period before the first day of the Company’s first taxable year in which the Company is a PFIC, will be taxed as ordinary income;

 

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  the amount allocated to other taxable years (or portions thereof) of the U.S. Holder and included in its holding period will be taxed at the highest tax rate in effect for that year and applicable to the U.S. Holder; and

  an additional tax equal to the interest charge generally applicable to underpayments of tax will be imposed on the U.S. Holder with respect to the tax attributable to each such other taxable year of the U.S. Holder.

 

PFIC Elections

 

In general, if the Company is determined to be a PFIC, a U.S. Holder may avoid the adverse PFIC tax consequences described above in respect of Common Shares by making and maintaining a timely and valid QEF election (if eligible to do so) to include in income its pro rata share of the Company’s net capital gains (as long-term capital gain) and other earnings and profits (as ordinary income), on a current basis, in each case whether or not distributed, in the first taxable year of the U.S. Holder in which or with which the Company’s taxable year ends and each subsequent taxable year. A U.S. Holder generally may make a separate election to defer the payment of taxes on undistributed income inclusions under the QEF rules, but if deferred, any such taxes will be subject to an interest charge.

 

In order to comply with the requirements of a QEF election, a U.S. Holder must receive a PFIC Annual Information Statement from us. If the Company determines that it is a PFIC, the Company intends to provide the information necessary for U.S. Holders to make or maintain a QEF election, including information necessary to determine the appropriate income inclusion amounts for purposes of the QEF election. However, there is also no assurance that the Company will have timely knowledge of its status as a PFIC in the future or of the required information to be provided.

 

Alternatively, if the Company is a PFIC and Common Shares constitute “marketable stock,” a U.S. Holder may avoid the adverse PFIC tax consequences discussed above if such U.S. Holder makes a mark-to-market election with respect to such shares for the first taxable year in which it holds (or is deemed to hold) Common Shares and each subsequent taxable year. Such U.S. Holder generally will include for each of its taxable years as ordinary income the excess, if any, of the fair market value of its Common Shares at the end of such year over its adjusted basis in its Common Shares. The U.S. Holder also will recognize an ordinary loss in respect of the excess, if any, of its adjusted basis of its Common Shares over the fair market value of its Common Shares at the end of its taxable year (but only to the extent of the net amount of previously included income as a result of the mark-to-market election). The U.S. Holder’s basis in its Common Shares will be adjusted to reflect any such income or loss amounts, and any further gain recognized on a sale or other taxable disposition of its Common Shares will be treated as ordinary income. Currently, a mark-to-market election may not be made with respect to public warrants.

 

The mark-to-market election is available only for “marketable stock,” generally, stock that is regularly traded on a national securities exchange that is registered with the SEC, including the Nasdaq (on which Common Shares are intended to be listed), or on a foreign exchange or market that the IRS determines has rules sufficient to ensure that the market price represents a legitimate and sound fair market value. If made, a mark-to-market election would be effective for the taxable year for which the election was made and for all subsequent taxable years unless the Common Shares cease to qualify as “marketable stock” for purposes of the PFIC rules or the IRS consents to the revocation of the election. U.S. Holders are urged to consult their tax advisors regarding the availability and tax consequences of a mark-to-market election with respect to Common Shares under their particular circumstances.

 

The application of the PFIC rules to public warrants is unclear. A proposed Treasury Regulation issued under these rules generally treats an “option” (which would include a public warrant) to acquire the stock of a PFIC as stock of the PFIC, while a final Treasury Regulation issued under these rules provides that the holder of an option is not entitled make the PFIC Elections. Another proposed Treasury Regulation provides that for purposes of the PFIC rules, stock acquired upon the exercise of an option will be deemed to have a holding period that includes the period the U.S. Holder held the public warrants. As a result, if the proposed Treasury Regulations were to apply, and a U.S. Holder were to sell or otherwise dispose of such public warrants (other than upon exercise of such public warrants for cash) and the Company was a PFIC at any time during the U.S. Holder’s holding period of such public warrants, any gain recognized generally would be treated as an excess distribution, taxed as described above. If a U.S. Holder that exercises such public warrants properly makes and maintains a QEF election with respect to the newly acquired Common Shares (or has previously made a QEF election with respect to Common Shares), the QEF election will apply to the newly acquired Common Shares. Notwithstanding such QEF election, if the proposed Treasury Regulations were to apply, the adverse tax consequences relating to PFIC shares, adjusted to take into account the current income inclusions resulting from the QEF election, would continue to apply with respect to such newly acquired Common Shares (which generally will be deemed to have a holding period for purposes of the PFIC rules that includes the period the U.S. Holder held the public warrants), unless the U.S. Holder makes a purging election under the PFIC rules described in the following paragraph.

 

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If the Company is treated as a PFIC and a U.S. Holder failed or was unable to timely make a PFIC Election for prior periods, a U.S. Holder might seek make a purging election to rid the Common Shares of the PFIC taint. A purging election might be desirable if, for example, a U.S. Holder misses the deadline for filing a QEF election for a prior period, or if the Common Shares were acquired through the exercise of public warrants with a holding period that includes the period the warrants were held, either as a result of the application of the proposed Treasury Regulations, or because the Common Shares are acquired through a cashless exercise that is treated as a recapitalization. Under one type of purging election, the U.S. Holder will be deemed to have sold such shares at their fair market value and any gain recognized on such deemed sale will be treated as an excess distribution, as described above. Under another type of purging election, the Company will be deemed to have made a distribution to the U.S. Holder of such U.S. Holder’s pro rata share of the Company’s earnings and profits as determined for U.S. federal income tax purposes. In order for the U.S. Holder to make the second election, the Company must also be determined to be a “controlled foreign corporation” as defined by the Code (which is not currently expected to be the case). As a result of either purging election, the U.S. Holder will have a new basis and holding period in the Common Shares acquired upon the exercise of the public warrants solely for purposes of the PFIC rules.

 

The QEF election is made on a shareholder-by-shareholder basis and, once made, can be revoked only with the consent of the IRS. A U.S. Holder generally makes a QEF election by attaching a completed IRS Form 8621 (Information Return by a Shareholder of a Passive Foreign Investment Company or Qualified Electing Fund), including the information provided in a PFIC Annual Information Statement, to a timely filed U.S. federal income tax return for the tax year to which the election relates. Retroactive QEF elections generally may be made only by filing a protective statement with such return and if certain other conditions are met or with the consent of the IRS. U.S. Holders are urged to consult their tax advisors regarding the availability and tax consequences of a retroactive QEF election under their particular circumstances.

 

Related PFIC Rules

 

If the Company is a PFIC and, at any time, has a foreign subsidiary that is classified as a PFIC, a U.S. Holder generally would be deemed to own a proportionate amount of the shares of such lower-tier PFIC, and generally could incur liability for the deferred tax and interest charge described above if the Company receives a distribution from, or disposes of all or part of its interest in, the lower-tier PFIC, or the U.S. Holder otherwise was deemed to have disposed of an interest in the lower-tier PFIC. In certain circumstances, a U.S. Holder may make a QEF election with respect to any lower-tier PFIC.

 

A U.S. Holder that owns (or is deemed to own) shares in a PFIC during any taxable year of the U.S. Holder, may have to file an IRS Form 8621 (whether or not a QEF or mark-to-market election is made) and to provide such other information as may be required by the U.S. Treasury Department. Failure to do so, if required, will extend the statute of limitations applicable to such U.S. Holder until such required information is furnished to the IRS.

 

The rules dealing with PFICs and with the QEF and mark-to-market elections are very complex and are affected by various factors in addition to those described above. Accordingly, U.S. Holders of Common Shares and public warrants are urged to consult their own tax advisors concerning the application of the PFIC rules to the Company’s securities under their particular circumstances.

 

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Information Reporting and Backup Withholding

 

Payments of dividends and sales proceeds that are made within the United States or through certain U.S.-related financial intermediaries are subject to information reporting, and may be subject to backup withholding, unless (i) the U.S. Holder is a corporation or other exempt recipient or (ii) in the case of backup withholding, the U.S. Holder provides a correct taxpayer identification number and certifies that it is not subject to backup withholding.

 

The amount of any backup withholding from a payment to a U.S. Holder will be allowed as a credit against the holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability and may entitle it to a refund, provided that the required information is timely furnished to the IRS.

 

The U.S. federal income tax discussion set forth above is included for general information only and may not be applicable to you depending upon your particular situation. You are urged to consult your own tax advisor with respect to the tax consequences to you of the ownership and disposition of our Common Shares and public warrants including the tax consequences under state, local, estate, foreign and other tax laws and tax treaties and the possible effects of changes in U.S. or other tax laws.

 

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MATERIAL CANADIAN FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS

 

The following is, as of the date of this prospectus, a summary of the principal Canadian federal income tax considerations pursuant to the Income Tax Act (Canada) and the regulations thereunder, (the “Tax Act”) that generally apply to the acquisition, holding or disposition of Common Shares and public warrants by a person who is neither resident nor deemed to be resident in Canada for purposes of the Tax Act and acquires a beneficial interest in Common Shares or public warrants, (a “Non-Resident Holder”).

 

This summary applies only to a Non-Resident Holder who, at all relevant times, for purposes of the Tax Act:

 

  holds Common Shares or public warrants as capital property;

  does not, and is not deemed to, use or hold Common Shares or public warrants in the course of carrying on a business in Canada; and

  deals at arm’s length and is not affiliated with us.

 

Special rules, which are not discussed in this summary, may apply to a Non-Resident Holder that is an insurer that carries on an insurance business in Canada and elsewhere.

 

This summary is based on the current provisions of the Tax Act, all specific proposals to amend the Tax Act publicly announced by or on behalf of the Minister of Finance (Canada) prior to the date hereof (the “Tax Proposals”) and an understanding of the current administrative policies and assessing practices of the Canada Revenue Agency (the “CRA”) made publicly available prior to the date hereof. This summary assumes the Tax Proposals will be enacted in the form proposed, however, no assurance can be given that the Tax Proposals will be enacted in the form proposed, or at all. Except for the Tax Proposals, this summary does not take into account or anticipate any changes in law or administrative policies or assessing practices of the CRA, whether by legislative, governmental or judicial action, nor does it take into account other federal or any provincial, territorial or foreign income tax legislation or considerations, which may differ significantly from those discussed herein.

 

Generally, for the purposes of the Tax Act, all amounts relating to the acquisition, holding or disposition of Common Shares and public warrants (including dividends, adjusted cost base and proceeds of disposition) must be expressed in Canadian dollars. Amounts denominated in U.S. dollars must be converted into Canadian dollars using the applicable rate of exchange (for the purposes of the Tax Act) quoted by the Bank of Canada on the date such amounts arose, or such other rate of exchange as is acceptable to the CRA.

 

This summary is not exhaustive of all possible Canadian federal income tax considerations that apply to an investment in Common Shares and public warrants. Moreover, the income and other tax consequences of acquiring, holding or disposing of Common Shares or public warrants will vary depending on an investor’s particular circumstances. Accordingly, this summary is of a general nature only and is not intended to be, nor should it be construed to be, legal or tax advice to any investor. Consequently, investors should consult their own tax advisors for advice with respect to the income tax consequences of an investment in Common Shares and public warrants based on their particular circumstances.

 

Adjusted Cost base of Common Shares

 

The adjusted cost base to a Non-Resident Holder of a Common Share acquired pursuant to this offering will be determined by averaging the cost of that Common Share with the adjusted cost base (determined immediately before the acquisition of the Common Share) of all other Common Shares held as capital property by the Non-Resident Holder immediately prior to such acquisition.

 

Exercise of Public Warrants

 

No gain or loss will be realized by a Non-Resident Holder upon the exercise of a public warrant to acquire a Common Share. A Non-Resident Holder’s cost of a Common Share so acquired will equal the aggregate of such Non-Resident Holder’s adjusted cost base of the public warrant exercised plus the exercise price paid for such Common Share. The Non-Resident Holder’s adjusted cost base of such Common Share will be determined by averaging the cost of the Common Share with the adjusted cost base (determined immediately before the acquisition of the Common Share) of all other Common Shares held as capital property by such Non-Resident Holder immediately prior to such acquisition.

 

44 

 

 

Dividends on Common Shares

 

Every Non-Resident Holder is liable to pay a Canadian withholding tax on every dividend that is or is deemed to be paid or credited to the Non-Resident Holder on the Non-Resident Holder’s Common Shares. The statutory rate of withholding tax is 25% of the gross amount of the dividend paid. Generally, the Canada - United States Tax Convention (1980), as amended (the “Treaty”) reduces the statutory rate with respect to dividends paid to a Non-Resident Holder who is resident in the U.S. for purposes of the Treaty, the beneficial owner of such dividends, and entitled to benefits under the Treaty, to 15% of the gross amount of the dividend. The Company is required to withhold the applicable tax from dividends payable to the Non-Resident Holder, and to remit the tax to the Receiver General of Canada for the account of the Non-Resident Holder.

 

Dispositions of Common Shares and Public Warrants

 

A Non-Resident Holder will not be subject to tax under the Tax Act on any capital gain realized on a disposition or deemed disposition of Common Shares (other than a disposition to us, which may result in a deemed dividend, unless purchased by us in the open market in the manner in which Common Shares are normally purchased by any member of the public in the open market, in which case other considerations may arise) or public warrants, unless the Common Shares or public warrants are “taxable Canadian property” of the Non-Resident Holder for purposes of the Tax Act and the Non-Resident Holder is not entitled to relief under the Treaty.

 

Generally, the Common Shares and public warrants will not constitute “taxable Canadian property” of a Non-Resident Holder at a particular time provided that the Common Shares are listed at that time on a “designated stock exchange” for purposes of the Tax Act (which currently includes the Nasdaq), unless, at any particular time during the 60-month period that ends at that time, both of the following are true:

 

  1. (a) the Non-Resident Holder, (b) persons with whom the Non-Resident Holder does not deal with at arm’s length, (c) partnerships in which the Non-Resident Holder or a person described in (b) holds an interest directly or indirectly through one or more partnerships, or (d) any combination of (a) to (c), owned 25% or more of the issued shares of any class or series of our capital stock; and
  2. more than 50% of the fair market value of the Common Shares was derived directly or indirectly from one or any combination of: (a) real or immovable properties situated in Canada, (b) “Canadian resource properties” (as defined in the Tax Act), (c) “timber resource properties” (as defined in the Tax Act), and (d) options in respect of, or interests in, or for civil law rights in, property in any of the foregoing whether or not the property exists.

 

NOTWITHSTANDING THE FOREGOING, IN CERTAIN CIRCUMSTANCES SET OUT IN THE TAX ACT, COMMON SHARES AND PUBLIC WARRANTS MAY BE DEEMED TO BE TAXABLE CANADIAN PROPERTY. NON-RESIDENT HOLDERS WHOSE COMMON SHARES OR PUBLIC WARRANTS MAY CONSTITUTE TAXABLE CANADIAN PROPERTY SHOULD CONSULT THEIR OWN TAX ADVISORS.

 

45 

 

 

LEGAL MATTERS

 

Fasken Martineau DuMoulin LLP, or Fasken, has passed upon the validity of the securities offered by this prospectus and certain other legal matters related to Canadian law. Mintz, Levin, Cohn, Ferris, Glovsky and Popeo, P.C., or Mintz, has passed upon the validity of certain other legal matters. Fasken and Mintz own 14,630 and 36,361 Common Shares, respectively.

 

EXPERTS

 

The financial statements of TMC the metals company Inc. as of December 31, 2021 and 2020 and for the years then ended have been incorporated by reference herein and in the registration statement in reliance on the report of Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, incorporated by reference herein, and upon the authority of said firm as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

 

We have filed a registration statement on Form S-3, including exhibits, under the Securities Act with respect to the securities offered by this prospectus. This prospectus does not contain all of the information included in the registration statement. For further information pertaining to us and our securities, you should refer to the registration statement and our exhibits.

 

In addition, we file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Our SEC filings are available to the public on a website maintained by the SEC located at www.sec.gov. We also maintain a website at www.metals.co. Through our website, we make available, free of charge, annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information as soon as reasonably practicable after they are electronically filed with, or furnished to, the SEC. The information contained on, or that may be accessed through, our website is not part of, and is not incorporated into, this prospectus. We include our website address in this prospectus only as an inactive textual reference. Information contained in our website does not constitute a part of this prospectus or our other filings with the SEC.

 

INCORPORATION OF DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE

 

The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” information that we file with them. Incorporation by reference allows us to disclose important information to you by referring you to those other documents. The information incorporated by reference is an important part of this prospectus, and information that we file later with the SEC will automatically update and supersede this information. We filed a registration statement on Form S-3 under the Securities Act with the SEC with respect to the securities we may offer pursuant to this prospectus. This prospectus omits certain information contained in the registration statement, as permitted by the SEC. You should refer to the registration statement, including the exhibits, for further information about us and the securities we may offer pursuant to this prospectus. Statements in this prospectus regarding the provisions of certain documents filed with, or incorporated by reference in, the registration statement are not necessarily complete and each statement is qualified in all respects by that reference. Copies of all or any part of the registration statement, including the documents incorporated by reference or the exhibits, may be obtained upon payment of the prescribed rates at the offices of the SEC listed above in “Where You Can Find More Information.” The documents we are incorporating by reference are:

 

our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021 that we filed with the SEC on March 25, 2022;

our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the quarters ended March 31, 2022 and June 30, 2022 that we filed with the SEC on May 9, 2022 and August 15, 2022;

our Current Reports on Form 8-K and amendments thereto that we filed with the SEC on February 10, 2022, March 17, 2022, June 2, 2022, and August 15, 2022 (other than any portion of such filings that are furnished under applicable SEC rules rather than filed);

46 

 

 

the description of our Common Shares contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A filed with the SEC on September 10, 2021, including any amendment or report filed for the purpose of updating such description; and

all reports and other documents subsequently filed by us with the SEC (other than any portion of such filings that are furnished under applicable SEC rules rather than filed) pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 and 15(d) of the Exchange Act after the date of this prospectus and prior to the termination or completion of the offering of securities under this prospectus shall be deemed to be incorporated by reference in this prospectus and to be a part hereof from the date of filing such reports and other documents.

 

The SEC file number for each of the documents listed above is 001-39281.

 

Any statement contained in this prospectus or in a document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus will be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus or any other subsequently filed document that is deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus modifies or supersedes the statement. Any statement so modified or superseded will not be deemed, except as so modified or superseded, to constitute a part of this prospectus.

 

You may request, orally or in writing, a copy of any or all of the documents incorporated herein by reference. These documents will be provided to you at no cost, by contacting:

 

TMC the metals company Inc.

595 Howe Street, 10 Floor

Vancouver, British Columbia

V6C 2T5

(574) 252-9333

 

You may also access these documents on our website, www.metals.co. The information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not a part of this prospectus. We have included our website address in this prospectus solely as an inactive textual reference.

 

You should rely only on information contained in, or incorporated by reference into, this prospectus and any prospectus supplement. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with information different from that contained in this prospectus or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. We are not making offers to sell the securities in any jurisdiction in which such an offer or solicitation is not authorized or in which the person making such offer or solicitation is not qualified to do so or to anyone to whom it is unlawful to make such offer or solicitation.

 

47 

 

 

 

TMC THE METALS COMPANY INC.

 

$100 MILLION OF

COMMON SHARES

PREFERRED SHARES

DEBT SECURITIES

WARRANTS

UNITS

 

AND

 

38,266,180 COMMON SHARES

OFFERED BY SELLING SHAREHOLDERS

 

PROSPECTUS

 

, 2022

 

 

 

 

PART II

INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS

 

Item 14. Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution

 

The following table sets forth an itemization of the various expenses, all of which we will pay, in connection with the issuance and distribution of the securities being registered. All of the amounts shown are estimated except the SEC Registration Fee and the FINRA Filing Fee.

 

SEC registration fee $ 12,817.28
FINRA filing fee $ 15,500
Printing and engraving expenses   *
Legal fees and expenses   *
Accountants’ fees and expenses   *
Transfer agent and registrar fees and expenses   *
Miscellaneous expenses   *
Total   *

 

* Estimated expenses not presently known. The foregoing sets forth the general categories of fees and expenses (other than underwriting discounts and commissions) that we anticipate we will incur in connection with the offering of securities under this registration statement. An estimate of the aggregate fees and expenses in connection with the issuance and distribution of the securities being offered will be included in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

Item 15. Indemnification of Directors and Officers

 

Under the BCBCA, a company may indemnify a director or officer, a former director or officer, or a person who acts or acted at the company’s request as a director or officer, or an individual acting in a similar capacity, of another entity, which we refer to as an eligible party, against all costs, charges and expenses, including an amount paid to settle an action or satisfy a judgment, reasonably incurred by him or her in respect of any civil, criminal, administrative, investigative or other proceeding in which he or she is involved because of that association with the company or other entity, if: (1) the individual acted honestly and in good faith with a view to the best interests of such company or the other entity, as the case may be; and (2) in the case of a proceeding other than a civil proceeding, the individual had reasonable grounds for believing that the individual’s conduct was lawful. A company cannot indemnify an eligible party if it is prohibited from doing so under its articles, even if it had agreed to do so by an indemnification agreement (provided that the articles prohibited indemnification when the indemnification agreement was made). A company may advance the expenses of an eligible party as they are incurred in an eligible proceeding only if the eligible party has provided an undertaking that, if it is ultimately determined that the payment of expenses was prohibited, the eligible party will repay any amounts advanced. On application from an eligible party, a court may make any order the court considers appropriate in respect of an eligible proceeding, including the indemnification of penalties imposed or expenses incurred in any such proceedings and the enforcement of an indemnification agreement.

 

Subject to the BCBCA, our Articles require us to indemnify an eligible party and his or her heirs and legal personal representatives against all eligible penalties to which such person is or may be liable, and we must after final disposition of an eligible proceeding, pay the expenses actually and reasonably incurred by such person in respect of that proceeding. Each eligible party is deemed to have contracted with us on the terms of the indemnity contained in our Articles. In addition, our Articles specify that failure of an eligible party to comply with the provisions of the BCBCA or our Articles will not invalidate any indemnity to which he or she is entitled. Our Articles also allow for us to purchase and maintain insurance for the benefit of specified eligible parties.

 

We entered into indemnity agreements with our directors and certain officers. Each indemnity agreement provides for indemnification and advancements by us of certain expenses and costs relating to claims, suits or proceedings arising from his or her service to us, or, at our request, service to other entities, as officers or directors to the maximum extent permitted by applicable law and subject to the terms and conditions of such indemnity agreement.

 

II-1

 

 

We have also purchased insurance policies relating to certain liabilities that our directors and officers may incur in such capacity.

 

Item 16. Exhibits

 

(a) The following exhibits are filed herewith or incorporated herein by reference:

 

Exhibit
Number
  Exhibit Description  

Filed

Herewith

 

Incorporated by

Reference herein

from Form or

Schedule

  Filing Date   SEC File/ Reg.
Number
           
1.1*   Form of Underwriting Agreement                
           
1.2   Form of Securities Purchase Agreement, dated August 12, 2022, by and among the Company and the Purchasers named therein.       Form 8-K
(Exhibit 10.1)
  8/15/2022   001-39281
                     
1.3   Securities Purchase Agreement, dated August 12, 2022, by and among the Company and Gerard Barron.     Form 8-K
(Exhibit 10.2)
  8/15/2022   001-39281
                   
1.4   Securities Purchase Agreement, dated August 12, 2022, by and among the Company and ERAS Capital LLC.     Form 8-K
(Exhibit 10.3)
  8/15/2022   001-39281
                   
4.1   Notice of Articles of TMC the metals company Inc.       Form 8-K
(Exhibit 3.1)
  9/15/2021   001-39281
           
4.2   Articles of TMC the metals company Inc.      

Form 8-K

(Exhibit 3.2)

  9/15/2021   001-39281
                     
4.3   TMC the metals company Inc. Common Share Certificate      

Form 8-K

(Exhibit 4.1)

  9/15/2021   001-39281
                     
4.4   Warrant Agreement between Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company and Sustainable Opportunities Acquisition Corp., dated May 8, 2020      

Form 8-K

(Exhibit 4.1)

  5/8/2020   001-39281
                     
4.5   Warrant to Purchase Common Shares issued by DeepGreen Metals Inc. to Allseas Group S.A. on March 4, 2021      

Form S-4

(Exhibit 4.5)

  4/8/2021   333-255118
                     
4.6*   Instrument with respect to Preferred Shares                
                     
4.7   Form of Senior Indenture   X            
                     
4.8   Form of Subordinated Indenture   X            
                     
4.9*   Form of Senior Debt Security                
                     
4.10*   Form of Subordinated Debt Security                
                     
4.11*   Form of Warrant Agreement and Warrant                
                     
4.12*   Form of Unit Agreement and Unit                

 

II-2

 

 

5.1   Opinion of Fasken Martineau DuMoulin LLP   X            
                     
5.2   Opinion of Mintz, Levin, Cohn, Ferris, Glovsky and Popeo, P.C.   X            
           
23.1   Consent of Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm   X            
                     
23.2   Consent of Fasken Martineau DuMoulin LLP (included in Exhibit 5.1)   X            
           
23.3   Consent of Mintz, Levin, Cohn, Ferris, Glovsky and Popeo, P.C. (included in Exhibit 5.2)   X            
                     
23.4   Consent of AMC Consultants Pty Ltd.   X            
                     
23.5   Consent of AMC Consultants Pty Ltd.   X            
                     
23.6   Consent of Canadian Engineering Associates Ltd.   X            
                     
23.7   Consent of Deep Reach Technology Inc.   X            
                     
23.8   Consent of Margin – Marine Geoscience Innovation   X            
                     
23.9   Consent of John Michael Parianos   X            
           
24.1   Power of attorney (included on the signature page)   X            
                     
25.1**   The Statement of Eligibility on Form T-1 under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, of the Trustee under the Senior Indenture                
                     
25.2**   The Statement of Eligibility on Form T-1 under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, of the Trustee under the Subordinated Indenture                
                     
96.1   Technical Report Summary — Initial Assessment of the NORI Property, Clarion-Clipperton Zone, for Deep Green Metals Inc., effective as of March 17, 2021, by AMC Consultants Pty Ltd. and other qualified persons      

Form S-4/A

(Exhibit 96.1)

  8/5/2021   333-255118
                     
96.2   Technical Report Summary — Initial Assessment of the TOML Mineral Resource, Clarion-Clipperton Zone, Pacific Ocean, for Deep Green Metals Inc., effective as of March 26, 2021, by AMC Consultants Pty Ltd. and other qualified persons      

Form S-4/A

(Exhibit 96.2)

  8/5/2021   333-255118
           
107   Filing Fee Table   X            

 

* To be subsequently filed, if applicable, by an amendment to this registration statement or as part of a Current Report on Form 8-K.
** To be subsequently filed, if applicable, in accordance with Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939.

 

II-3

 

 

Item 17. Undertakings

 

(a) The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes:

 

(1) To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:

 

(i) To include any prospectus required by section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933;

 

(ii) To reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than a 20% change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement; and

 

(iii) To include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement; provided, however, that paragraphs (a)(1)(i), (a)(1)(ii) and (a)(1)(iii) do not apply if the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the Commission by the registrant pursuant to section 13 or section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 that are incorporated by reference in the registration statement, or is contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of the registration statement.

 

(2) That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

(3) To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.

 

(4) That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser:

 

(i) Each prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and

 

(ii) Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5), or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii), or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by section 10(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date.

 

II-4

 

 

(5) That, for the purpose of determining liability of the registrant under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities, in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:

 

(i) Any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;

 

(ii) Any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned registrant;

 

(iii) The portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant; and

 

(iv) Any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrant to the purchaser.

 

(b) That, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act:

 

(i) the information omitted from the form of prospectus filed as part of the registration statement in reliance upon Rule 430A and contained in the form of prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(1) or (4) or 497(h) under the Securities Act shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the time it was declared effective; and

 

(ii) each post-effective amendment that contains a form of prospectus shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

(c) The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes that, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each filing of the registrant’s annual report pursuant to section 13(a) or section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

(d) Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act of 1933 may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the registrant, the registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Act and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Act and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.

 

II-5

 

 

SIGNATURES

 

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, the registrant has duly caused this registration statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized in the City of New York, State of New York on September 16, 2022.

 

  TMC THE METALS COMPANY INC.
   
  By: /s/ Craig Shesky
    Craig Shesky
    Chief Financial Officer

 

II-6

 

 

SIGNATURES AND POWER OF ATTORNEY

 

Each person whose signature appears below constitutes and appoints each of Gerard Barron and Craig Shesky, acting alone or together with another attorney-in-fact, as his or her true and lawful attorney-in-fact and agent, with full power of substitution and resubstitution, for such person and in his or her name, place and stead, in any and all capacities, to sign any or all further amendments (including post-effective amendments) to this registration statement (and any additional registration statement related hereto permitted by Rule 462(b) promulgated under the Securities Act (and all further amendments, including post-effective amendments, thereto)), and to file the same, with all exhibits thereto, and other documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, granting unto said attorneys-in-fact and agents, and each of them, full power and authority to do and perform each and every act and thing requisite and necessary to be done in and about the premises, as fully to all intents and purposes as he or she might or could do in person, hereby ratifying and confirming all that said attorney-in-fact and agent, or his or her substitute or substitutes, may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.

 

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act, this registration statement has been signed by the following persons in the capacities and on the dated indicated.

 

Name   Title   Date

 

/s/ Gerard Barron

  Chief Executive Officer and Chairman   September 16, 2022
Gerard Barron   (Principal Executive Officer)    
         
/s/ Craig Shesky   Chief Financial Officer   September 16, 2022
Craig Shesky   (Principal Financial and Accounting Officer)    
         
/s/ Gina Stryker   Director   September 16, 2022
Gina Stryker        
         
/s/ Christian Madsbjerg   Director   September 16, 2022
Christian Madsbjerg        
         
/s/ Andrew Hall   Director   September 16, 2022
Andrew Hall        
         
/s/ Kathleen McAllister   Director   September 16, 2022
Kathleen McAllister        
         
/s/ Sheila Khama   Director   September 16, 2022
Sheila Khama        
         
/s/ Andrei Karkar   Director   September 16, 2022
Andrei Karkar        
         
/s/ Amelia Kinahoi Siamomua   Director   September 16, 2022
Amelia Kinahoi Siamomua        

 

II-7

 

Exhibit 4.7

 

TMC THE METALS COMPANY INC. 

Issuer

AND 

[ ] 

Trustee 

INDENTURE 

Dated as of [ ] 

Senior Debt Securities

 

CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE(1)

 

Section of

Trust Indenture Act

of 1939, as Amended

  Section of
Indenture
 
310(a).     7.09  
310(b).     7.08  
      7.10  
310(c).     Inapplicable  
311(a).     7.13(a)  
311(b).     7.13(b)  
311(c).     Inapplicable  
312(a).     5.02(a)  
312(b).     5.02(b)  
312(c).     5.02(c)  
313(a).     5.04(a)  
313(b).     5.04(a)  
313(c).     5.04(a)  
      5.04(b)  
313(d).     5.04(b)  
314(a).     5.03  
314(b).     Inapplicable  
314(c).     13.06  
314(d).     Inapplicable  
314(e).     13.06  
314(f).     Inapplicable  
315(a).     7.01(a)  
      7.02  
315(b).     6.07  
315(c).     7.01  
315(d).     7.01(b)  
      7.01(c)  
315(e).     6.07  
316(a).     6.06  
      8.04  
316(b).     6.04  
316(c).     8.01  
317(a).     6.02  
317(b).     4.03  
318(a).     13.08  

 

(1) This Cross-Reference Table does not constitute part of the Indenture and shall not have any bearing on the interpretation of any of its terms or provisions.

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS(2)

 

    Page
ARTICLE I DEFINITIONS 1
SECTION 1.01 Definitions of Terms 1
ARTICLE II ISSUE, DESCRIPTION, TERMS, EXECUTION, REGISTRATION AND EXCHANGE OF SECURITIES 3
SECTION 2.01 Designation and Terms of Securities 3
SECTION 2.02 Form of Securities and Trustee’s Certificate 4
SECTION 2.03 Denominations: Provisions for Payment 5
SECTION 2.04 Execution and Authentications 5
SECTION 2.05 Registration of Transfer and Exchange 6
SECTION 2.06 Temporary Securities 7
SECTION 2.07 Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost or Stolen Securities 7
SECTION 2.08 Cancellation 7
SECTION 2.09 Benefits of Indenture 7
SECTION 2.10 Authenticating Agent 8
SECTION 2.11 Global Securities 8
ARTICLE III REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES AND SINKING FUND PROVISIONS 9
SECTION 3.01 Redemption 9
SECTION 3.02 Notice of Redemption 9
SECTION 3.03 Payment Upon Redemption 9
SECTION 3.04 Sinking Fund 10
SECTION 3.05 Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities 10
SECTION 3.06 Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund 10
ARTICLE IV COVENANTS 10
SECTION 4.01 Payment of Principal, Premium and Interest 10
SECTION 4.02 Maintenance of Office or Agency 10
SECTION 4.03 Paying Agents 11
SECTION 4.04 Appointment to Fill Vacancy in Office of Trustee 11
SECTION 4.05 Compliance with Consolidation Provisions 11
ARTICLE V SECURITYHOLDERS’ LISTS AND REPORTS BY THE COMPANY AND THE TRUSTEE 11
SECTION 5.01 Company to Furnish Trustee Names and Addresses of Securityholders 11

 

 

 

 

SECTION 5.02 Preservation of Information; Communications with Securityholders 11
SECTION 5.03 Reports by the Company 12
SECTION 5.04 Reports by the Trustee 12
ARTICLE VI REMEDIES OF THE TRUSTEE AND SECURITYHOLDERS ON EVENT OF DEFAULT 12
SECTION 6.01 Events of Default 12
SECTION 6.02 Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee 13
SECTION 6.03 Application of Moneys Collected 14
SECTION 6.04 Limitation on Suits 14
SECTION 6.05 Rights and Remedies Cumulative; Delay or Omission Not Waiver 15
SECTION 6.06 Control by Securityholders 15
SECTION 6.07 Undertaking to Pay Costs 15
ARTICLE VII CONCERNING THE TRUSTEE 16
SECTION 7.01 Certain Duties and Responsibilities of Trustee 16
SECTION 7.02 Certain Rights of Trustee 16
SECTION 7.03 Trustee Not Responsible for Recitals or Issuance of Securities 17
SECTION 7.04 May Hold Securities 17
SECTION 7.05 Moneys Held in Trust 17
SECTION 7.06 Compensation and Reimbursement 17
SECTION 7.07 Reliance on Officers’ Certificate 18
SECTION 7.08 Disqualification; Conflicting Interests 18
SECTION 7.09 Corporate Trustee Required; Eligibility 18
SECTION 7.10 Resignation and Removal; Appointment of Successor 18
SECTION 7.11 Acceptance of Appointment By Successor 19
SECTION 7.12 Merger, Conversion, Consolidation or Succession to Business 20
SECTION 7.13 Preferential Collection of Claims Against the Company 20
ARTICLE VIII CONCERNING THE SECURITYHOLDERS 20
SECTION 8.01 Evidence of Action by Securityholders 20
SECTION 8.02 Proof of Execution by Securityholders 20

 

 

 

 

SECTION 8.03 Who May be Deemed Owners 20
SECTION 8.04 Certain Securities Owned by Company Disregarded 20
SECTION 8.05 Actions Binding on Future Securityholders 21
SECTION 8.06 Purposes for Which Meetings May Be Called 21
SECTION 8.07 Call Notice and Place of Meetings 21
SECTION 8.08 Persons Entitled To Vote at Meetings 21
SECTION 8.09 Quorum; Action 21
SECTION 8.10 Determination of Voting Rights; Conduct and Adjournment of Meetings 22
SECTION 8.11 Counting Votes and Recording Action of Meetings 22
ARTICLE IX SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES 22
SECTION 9.01 Supplemental Indentures Without the Consent of Securityholders 22
SECTION 9.02 Supplemental Indentures With Consent of Securityholders 23
SECTION 9.03 Effect of Supplemental Indentures 23
SECTION 9.04 Securities Affected by Supplemental Indentures 24
SECTION 9.05 Execution of Supplemental Indentures 24
ARTICLE X SUCCESSOR ENTITY 24
SECTION 10.01 Company May Consolidate, Etc. 24
SECTION 10.02 Successor Entity Substituted 24
SECTION 10.03 Evidence of Consolidation, Etc. to Trustee 25
ARTICLE XI SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE 25
SECTION 11.01 Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture 25
SECTION 11.02 Discharge of Obligations 25
SECTION 11.03 Deposited Moneys to be Held in Trust 25
SECTION 11.04 Payment of Moneys Held by Paying Agents 25
SECTION 11.05 Repayment to Company 25
ARTICLE XII IMMUNITY OF INCORPORATORS,  SHAREHOLDERS, OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS 26
SECTION 12.01 No Recourse 26
ARTICLE XIII MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS 26
SECTION 13.01 Effect on Successors and Assigns 26
SECTION 13.02 Actions by Successor 26
SECTION 13.03 Surrender of Company Powers 26
SECTION 13.04 Notices 26
SECTION 13.05 Governing Law 26
SECTION 13.06 Treatment of Securities as Debt 27
SECTION 13.07 Compliance Certificates and Opinions 27
SECTION 13.08 Payments on Business Days 27
SECTION 13.09 Conflict with Trust Indenture Act 27
SECTION 13.10 Counterparts 27
SECTION 13.11 Separability 27
SECTION 13.12 Assignment 27

 

(2) This Table of Contents does not constitute part of the Indenture and shall not have any bearing on the interpretation of any of its terms and provisions.

 

 

 

 

INDENTURE, dated as of [ ], by and between TMC the metals company Inc., a corporation existing under the laws of British Columbia, Canada (the “Company”), and [ ], as trustee (the “Trustee”):

 

WHEREAS, for its lawful corporate purposes, the Company has duly authorized the execution and delivery of this Indenture to provide for the issuance of debt securities (hereinafter referred to as the “Securities”), in an unlimited aggregate principal amount to be issued from time to time in one or more series as in this Indenture provided, as registered Securities without coupons, to be authenticated by the certificate of the Trustee;

 

WHEREAS, to provide the terms and conditions upon which the Securities are to be authenticated, issued and delivered, the Company has duly authorized the execution of this Indenture; and

 

WHEREAS, all things necessary to make this Indenture a valid agreement of the Company, in accordance with its terms, have been done.

 

NOW, THEREFORE, in consideration of the premises and the purchase of the Securities by the holders thereof, it is mutually covenanted and agreed as follows for the equal and ratable benefit of the holders of Securities:

 

ARTICLE I 

DEFINITIONS

 

SECTION 1.01 Definitions of Terms. The terms defined in this Section (except as in this Indenture otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise requires) for all purposes of this Indenture and of any indenture supplemental hereto shall have the respective meanings specified in this Section and shall include the plural as well as the singular. All other terms used in this Indenture that are defined in the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, or that are by reference in such Act defined in the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (except as herein otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise requires), shall have the meanings assigned to such terms in said Trust Indenture Act and in said Securities Act as in force at the date of the execution of this instrument.

 

“Authenticating Agent” means an authenticating agent with respect to all or any of the series of Securities appointed with respect to all or any series of the Securities by the Trustee pursuant to Section 2.10.

 

“Bankruptcy Law” means Title 11, U.S. Code, or any similar federal or state law for the relief of debtors.

 

“Board of Directors” means the Board of Directors of the Company or any duly authorized committee of such Board.

 

“Board Resolution” means a copy of a resolution certified by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company to have been duly adopted by the Board of Directors and to be in full force and effect on the date of such certification.

 

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“Business Day” means, with respect to any series of Securities, any day other than a day on which Federal or State banking institutions in the Borough of Manhattan, the City and State of New York, are authorized or obligated by law, executive order or regulation to close.

 

“Certificate” means a certificate signed by the principal executive officer, the principal financial officer or the principal accounting officer of the Company. The Certificate need not comply with the provisions of Section 13.07.

 

“Commission” means the Securities and Exchange Commission.

 

“Company” means the corporation named as the “Company” in the first paragraph of this instrument until a successor corporation shall have become such pursuant to the applicable provisions of this Indenture, and thereafter “Company” shall mean such successor corporation.

 

“Corporate Trust Office” means the office of the Trustee at which, at any particular time, its corporate trust business shall be principally administered, which office at the date hereof is located at [ ], except that whenever a provision herein refers to an office or agency of the Trustee in the Borough of Manhattan, the City and State of New York, such office is located, at the date hereof, at [ ].

 

“Custodian” means any receiver, trustee, assignee, liquidator, or similar official under any Bankruptcy Law.

 

“Default” means an event which is, or after notice or lapse of time, or both, would constitute an Event of Default.

 

“Depositary” means, with respect to Securities of any series, for which the Company shall determine that such Securities will be issued as a Global Security, The Depository Trust Company, New York, New York, another clearing agency, or any successor registered as a clearing agency under the Exchange Act, or other applicable statute or regulation, which, in each case, shall be designated by the Company pursuant to either Section 2.01 or Section 2.11.

 

“Event of Default” means, with respect to Securities of a particular series, any event specified in Section 6.01, continued for the period of time, if any, therein designated.

 

“Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.

 

“Global Security” means, with respect to any series of Securities, a Security executed by the Company and delivered by the Trustee to the Depositary or pursuant to the Depositary’s instruction, all in accordance with this Indenture, which shall be registered in the name of the Depositary or its nominee.

 

“Governmental Obligations” means securities that are (i) direct obligations of the United States of America for the payment of which its full faith and credit is pledged or (ii) obligations of a Person controlled or supervised by and acting as an agency or instrumentality of the United States of America, the payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by the United States of America that, in either case, are non-callable at the option of the issuer thereof, and shall also include a depositary receipt issued by a bank (as defined in Section 3(a)(2) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended) as custodian with respect to any such Governmental Obligation or a specific payment of principal of or interest on any such Governmental Obligation held by such custodian for the account of the holder of such depositary receipt; provided, however, that (except as required by law) such custodian is not authorized to make any deduction from the amount payable to the holder of such depositary receipt from any amount received by the custodian in respect of the Governmental Obligation or the specific payment of principal of or interest on the Governmental Obligation evidenced by such depositary receipt.

 

“herein,” “hereof” and “hereunder,” and other words of similar import, refer to this Indenture as a whole and not to any particular Article, Section or other subdivision.

 

“Indenture” means this instrument as originally executed or as it may from time to time be supplemented or amended by one or more indentures supplemental hereto entered into in accordance with the terms hereof.

 

“Interest Payment Date,” when used with respect to any installment of interest on a Security of a particular series, means the date specified in such Security or in a Board Resolution or in an indenture supplemental hereto with respect to such series as the fixed date on which an installment of interest with respect to Securities of that series is due and payable.

 

“Officers’ Certificate” means a certificate signed by the President or a Vice President and by the Chief Financial Officer, Vice President of Finance, the Treasurer or an Assistant Treasurer or the Controller or an Assistant Controller or the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company that is delivered to the Trustee in accordance with the terms hereof. Certificate shall include the statements provided for in Section 13.07, if and to the extent required by the provisions thereof.

 

“Opinion of Counsel” means a written opinion of counsel, who may be counsel to the Company (and may include directors or employees of the Company) and which opinion is acceptable to the Trustee which acceptance shall not be unreasonably withheld.

 

“Outstanding”, when used with reference to Securities of any series, means, subject to the provisions of Section 8.04, as of any particular time, all Securities of that series theretofore authenticated and delivered by the Trustee under this Indenture, except (a) Securities theretofore canceled by the Trustee or any paying agent, or delivered to the Trustee or any paying agent for cancellation or that have previously been canceled; (b) Securities or portions thereof for the payment or redemption of which moneys or Governmental Obligations in the necessary amount shall have been deposited in trust with the Trustee or with any paying agent (other than the Company) or shall have been set aside and segregated in trust by the Company (if the Company shall act as its own paying agent); provided, however, that if such Securities or portions of such Securities are to be redeemed prior to the maturity thereof, notice of such redemption shall have been given as in Article III provided, or provision satisfactory to the Trustee shall have been made for giving such notice; and (c) Securities in lieu of or in substitution for which other Securities shall have been authenticated and delivered pursuant to the terms of Section 2.07.

 

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“Person” means any individual, corporation, limited liability company, partnership, joint-venture, association, joint-stock company, trust, estate, unincorporated organization or government or any agency or political subdivision thereof.

 

“Predecessor Security” of any particular Security means every previous Security evidencing all or a portion of the same debt as that evidenced by such particular Security; and, for the purposes of this definition, any Security authenticated and delivered under Section 2.07 in lieu of a mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall be deemed to evidence the same debt as the mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security.

 

“Responsible Officer,” when used with respect to the Trustee, means any officer of the Trustee, including any vice president, assistant vice president, secretary, assistant secretary, the treasurer, any assistant treasurer, the managing director or any other officer of the Trustee customarily performing functions similar to those performed by any of the above designated officers and also means, with respect to a particular corporate trust matter, any other officer to whom such matter is referred because of such officer’s knowledge of and familiarity with the particular subject.

 

“Securities” means the debt Securities authenticated and delivered under this Indenture.

 

“Security Register” has the meaning specified in Section 2.05.

 

“Security Registrar” has the meaning specified in Section 2.05.

 

“Securityholder,” “holder of Securities,” “registered holder,” or other similar term, means the Person or Persons in whose name or names a particular Security shall be registered in the Security Register.

 

“Subsidiary” means, with respect to any Person, (i) any corporation at least a majority of whose outstanding Voting Stock shall at the time be owned, directly or indirectly, by such Person or by one or more of its Subsidiaries or by such Person and one or more of its Subsidiaries, (ii) any general partnership, joint venture or similar entity, at least a majority of whose outstanding partnership or similar interests shall at the time be owned by such Person, or by one or more of its Subsidiaries, or by such Person and one or more of its Subsidiaries and (iii) any limited partnership of which such Person or any of its Subsidiaries is a general partner.

 

“Trustee” means the Person named as the “Trustee” in the first paragraph of this instrument until a successor Trustee shall have become such pursuant to the applicable provisions of this Indenture, and thereafter “Trustee” shall mean such successor Trustee. The term “Trustee” as used with respect to a particular series of the Securities shall mean the trustee with respect to that series.

 

“Trust Indenture Act” means the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, subject to the provisions of Sections 9.01, 9.02, and 10.01, as in effect at the date of execution of this instrument; provided, however, that in the event the Trust Indenture Act is amended after such date, Trust Indenture Act means, to the extent required by such amendment, the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as so amended, or any successor statute.

 

“Voting Stock,” as applied to any Person, means shares, interests, participations or other equivalents in the equity interest (however designated) in such Person having ordinary voting power for the election of a majority of the directors (or the equivalent) of such Person, other than shares, interests, participations or other equivalents having such power only by reason of the occurrence of a contingency.

 

ARTICLE II 

ISSUE, DESCRIPTION, TERMS, EXECUTION, 

REGISTRATION AND EXCHANGE OF SECURITIES

 

SECTION 2.01 Designation and Terms of Securities.

 

(a) The aggregate principal amount of Securities that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture is unlimited. The Securities may be issued in one or more series up to the aggregate principal amount of Securities of that series from time to time authorized by or pursuant to a Board Resolution of the Company or pursuant to one or more indentures supplemental hereto. Prior to the initial issuance of Securities of a given series, there shall be established in or pursuant to a Board Resolution of the Company, and set forth in an Officers’ Certificate of the Company, or established in one or more indentures supplemental hereto:

 

(1) the title of the Security of the series (which shall distinguish the Securities of the series from all other Securities);

 

3 

 

 

(2) the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such series initially to be issued and any limit upon the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that series that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture (except for Securities authenticated and delivered upon registration of transfer of, or in exchange for, or in lieu of, other Securities of that series);

 

(3) the currency or units based on or relating to currencies in which debt securities of such series are denominated and the currency or units in which principal or interest or both will or may be payable;

 

(4) the date or dates on which the principal of the Securities of the series is payable and the place(s) of payment;

 

(5) the rate or rates at which the Securities of the series shall bear interest or the manner of calculation of such rate or rates, if any;

 

(6) the date or dates from which such interest shall accrue, the Interest Payment Dates on which such interest will be payable or the manner of determination of such Interest Payment Dates, the place(s) of payment, and the record date for the determination of holders to whom interest is payable on any such Interest Payment Dates or the method for determining such dates;

 

(7) the right, if any, to extend the interest payment periods or to defer the payment of interest and the duration of such extension;

 

(8) the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which, Securities of the series may be redeemed, in whole or in part, at the option of the Company;

 

(9) the obligation, if any, of the Company to redeem or purchase Securities of the series pursuant to any sinking fund or analogous provisions (including payments made in cash in satisfaction of future sinking fund obligations) or at the option of a holder thereof and the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which, and the terms and conditions upon which, Securities of the series shall be redeemed or purchased, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation;

 

(10) whether or not the debt securities will be secured or unsecured, and the terms of any secured debt;

 

(11) the form of the Securities of the series including the form of the Certificate of Authentication for such series;

 

(12) if other than denominations of one thousand U.S. dollars ($1,000) or any integral multiple thereof, the denominations in which the Securities of the series shall be issuable;

 

(13) any and all other terms with respect to such series (which terms shall not be inconsistent with the terms of this Indenture, as amended by any supplemental indenture) including any terms which may be required by or advisable under United States laws or regulations or advisable in connection with the marketing of Securities of that series;

 

(14) whether the Securities are issuable as a Global Security and, in such case, the identity of the Depositary for such series;

 

(15) whether the Securities will be convertible into common shares or other securities of the Company and, if so, the terms and conditions upon which such Securities will be so convertible, including the conversion price and the conversion period;

 

(16) if other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of Securities of the series which shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.01; and

 

(17) any additional or different Events of Default or restrictive covenants provided for with respect to the Securities of the series.

 

All Securities of any one series shall be substantially identical except as to denomination and except as may otherwise be provided in or pursuant to any such Board Resolution or in any indentures supplemental hereto.

 

If any of the terms of the series are established by action taken pursuant to a Board Resolution of the Company, a copy of an appropriate record of such action shall be certified by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company and delivered to the Trustee at or prior to the delivery of the Officers’ Certificate of the Company setting forth the terms of the series.

 

Securities of any particular series may be issued at various times, with different dates on which the principal or any installment of principal is payable, with different rates of interest, if any, or different methods by which rates of interest may be determined, with different dates on which such interest may be payable and with different redemption dates.

 

SECTION 2.02 Form of Securities and Trustee’s Certificate. The Securities of any series and the Trustee’s certificate of authentication to be borne by such Securities shall be substantially of the tenor and purport as set forth in one or more indentures supplemental hereto or as provided in a Board Resolution of the Company and as set forth in an Officers’ Certificate of the Company and may have such letters, numbers or other marks of identification or designation and such legends or endorsements printed, lithographed or engraved thereon as the Company may deem appropriate and as are not inconsistent with the provisions of this Indenture, or as may be required to comply with any law or with any rule or regulation made pursuant thereto or with any rule or regulation of any securities exchange on which Securities of that series may be listed, or to conform to usage.

 

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SECTION 2.03 Denominations: Provisions for Payment. The Securities shall be issuable as registered Securities and in the denominations of one thousand U.S. dollars ($1,000) or any integral multiple thereof, subject to Section 2.01(a)(12). The Securities of a particular series shall bear interest payable on the dates and at the rate specified with respect to that series. The principal of and the interest on the Securities of any series, as well as any premium thereon in case of redemption thereof prior to maturity, shall be payable in the coin or currency of the United States of America that at the time is legal tender for public and private debt, at the office or agency of the Company maintained for that purpose in the Borough of Manhattan, the City and State of New York. Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication. Interest on the Securities shall be computed on the basis of a 360-day year composed of twelve 30-day months.

 

The interest installment on any Security that is payable, and is punctually paid or duly provided for, on any Interest Payment Date for Securities of that series shall be paid to the Person in whose name said Security (or one or more Predecessor Securities) is registered at the close of business on the regular record date for such interest installment. In the event that any Security of a particular series or portion thereof is called for redemption and the redemption date is subsequent to a regular record date with respect to any Interest Payment Date and prior to such Interest Payment Date, interest on such Security will be paid upon presentation and surrender of such Security as provided in Section 3.03.

 

Any interest on any Security that is payable, but is not punctually paid or duly provided for, on any Interest Payment Date for Securities of the same series (herein called “Defaulted Interest”) shall forthwith cease to be payable to the registered holder on the relevant regular record date by virtue of having been such holder; and such Defaulted Interest shall be paid by the Company, at its election, as provided in clause (1) or clause (2) below:

 

(1) The Company may make payment of any Defaulted Interest on Securities to the Persons in whose names such Securities (or their respective Predecessor Securities) are registered at the close of business on a special record date for the payment of such Defaulted Interest, which shall be fixed in the following manner: the Company shall notify the Trustee in writing of the amount of Defaulted Interest proposed to be paid on each such Security and the date of the proposed payment, and at the same time the Company shall deposit with the Trustee an amount of money equal to the aggregate amount proposed to be paid in respect of such Defaulted Interest or shall make arrangements satisfactory to the Trustee for such deposit prior to the date of the proposed payment, such money when deposited to be held in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled to such Defaulted Interest as in this clause provided. Thereupon the Trustee shall fix a special record date for the payment of such Defaulted Interest which shall not be more than 15 nor less than 10 days prior to the date of the proposed payment and not less than 10 days after the receipt by the Trustee of the notice of the proposed payment. The Trustee shall promptly notify the Company of such special record date and, in the name and at the expense of the Company, shall cause notice of the proposed payment of such Defaulted Interest and the special record date therefor to be mailed, first class postage prepaid, to each Securityholder at his or her address as it appears in the Security Register, not less than 10 days prior to such special record date. Notice of the proposed payment of such Defaulted Interest and the special record date therefor having been mailed as aforesaid, such Defaulted Interest shall be paid to the Persons in whose names such Securities (or their respective Predecessor Securities) are registered on such special record date.

 

(2) The Company may make payment of any Defaulted Interest on any Securities in any other lawful manner not inconsistent with the requirements of any securities exchange on which such Securities may be listed, and upon such notice as may be required by such exchange, if, after notice given by the Company to the Trustee of the proposed payment pursuant to this clause, such manner of payment shall be deemed practicable by the Trustee.

 

Unless otherwise set forth in a Board Resolution of the Company or one or more indentures supplemental hereto establishing the terms of any series of Securities pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof, the term “regular record date” as used in this Section with respect to a series of Securities with respect to any Interest Payment Date for such series shall mean either the fifteenth day of the month immediately preceding the month in which an Interest Payment Date established for such series pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof shall occur, if such Interest Payment Date is the first day of a month, or the last day of the month immediately preceding the month in which an Interest Payment Date established for such series pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof shall occur, if such Interest Payment Date is the fifteenth day of a month, whether or not such date is a Business Day.

 

Subject to the foregoing provisions of this Section, each Security of a series delivered under this Indenture upon transfer of or in exchange for or in lieu of any other Security of such series shall carry the rights to interest accrued and unpaid, and to accrue, that were carried by such other Security.

 

SECTION 2.04 Execution and Authentications. The Securities shall be signed on behalf of the Company by its President, or one of its Vice Presidents, or its Treasurer, or one of its Assistant Treasurers, or its Secretary, or one of its Assistant Secretaries, under its corporate seal attested by its Secretary or one of its Assistant Secretaries. Signatures may be in the form of a manual or facsimile signature. The Company may use the facsimile signature of any Person who shall have been a President or Vice President thereof, or of any Person who shall have been a Treasurer or Assistant Treasurer thereof, or of any Person who shall have been a Secretary or Assistant Secretary thereof, notwithstanding the fact that at the time the Securities shall be authenticated and delivered or disposed of such Person shall have ceased to be the President or a Vice President, the Treasurer or an Assistant Treasurer or the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary, of the Company. The seal of the Company may be in the form of a facsimile of such seal and may be impressed, affixed, imprinted or otherwise reproduced on the Securities. The Securities may contain such notations, legends or endorsements required by law, securities exchange rule or usage. Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication.

 

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A Security shall not be valid or obligatory for any purpose and shall not be entitled to any benefit under this Indenture, in each case, until authenticated with a certificate of authentication manually signed by an authorized signatory of the Trustee, or by an Authenticating Agent. Such certificate shall be conclusive evidence, and the only evidence, that the Security so authenticated has been duly authenticated and delivered hereunder and that the Security is entitled to the benefits of this Indenture. At any time and from time to time after the execution and delivery of this Indenture, the Company may deliver Securities of any series executed by the Company to the Trustee for authentication, together with a written order of the Company for the authentication and delivery of such Securities, signed by its President or any Vice President and its Secretary or any Assistant Secretary, and the Trustee in accordance with such written order shall authenticate and deliver such Securities.

 

In authenticating such Securities and accepting the additional responsibilities under this Indenture in relation to such Securities, the Trustee shall be entitled to receive, and (subject to Section 7.01) shall be fully protected in relying upon, an Opinion of Counsel stating that the form and terms thereof have been established in conformity with the provisions of this Indenture.

 

The Trustee shall not be required to authenticate such Securities if the issue of such Securities pursuant to this Indenture will affect the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under the Securities and this Indenture or otherwise in a manner that is not reasonably acceptable to the Trustee.

 

SECTION 2.05 Registration of Transfer and Exchange.

 

(a) Securities of any series may be exchanged upon presentation thereof at the office or agency of the Company designated for such purpose in the Borough of Manhattan, the City and State of New York, for other Securities of such series of authorized denominations, and for a like aggregate principal amount, upon payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge in relation thereto, all as provided in this Section. In respect of any Securities so surrendered for exchange, the Company shall execute, the Trustee shall authenticate and such office or agency shall deliver in exchange therefor the Security or Securities of the same series that the Securityholder making the exchange shall be entitled to receive, bearing numbers not contemporaneously outstanding.

 

(b) The Company shall keep, or cause to be kept, at its office or agency designated for such purpose in the Borough of Manhattan, the City and State of New York, or such other location designated by the Company a register or registers (herein referred to as the “Security Register”) in which, subject to such reasonable regulations as it may prescribe, the Company shall register the Securities and the transfers of Securities as in this Article provided and which at all reasonable times shall be open for inspection by the Trustee. The registrar for the purpose of registering Securities and transfer of Securities as herein provided shall be appointed as authorized by Board Resolution (the “Security Registrar”).

 

Upon surrender for transfer of any Security at the office or agency of the Company designated for such purpose, the Company shall execute, the Trustee shall authenticate and such office or agency shall deliver in the name of the transferee or transferees a new Security or Securities of the same series as the Security presented for a like aggregate principal amount.

 

All Securities presented or surrendered for exchange or registration of transfer, as provided in this Section, shall be accompanied (if so required by the Company or the Security Registrar) by a written instrument or instruments of transfer, in form satisfactory to the Company or the Security Registrar, duly executed by the registered holder or by such holder’s duly authorized attorney in writing.

 

(c) No service charge shall be made for any exchange or registration of transfer of Securities, or issue of new Securities in case of partial redemption of any series, but the Company may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge in relation thereto, other than exchanges pursuant to Section 2.06, Section 3.03(b) and Section 9.04 not involving any transfer.

 

(d) The Company shall not be required (i) to issue, exchange or register the transfer of any Securities during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the day of the mailing of a notice of redemption of less than all the Outstanding Securities of the same series and ending at the close of business on the day of such mailing, nor (ii) to register the transfer of or exchange any Securities of any series or portions thereof called for redemption. The provisions of this Section 2.05 are, with respect to any Global Security, subject to Section 2.11 hereof.

 

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SECTION 2.06 Temporary Securities. Pending the preparation of definitive Securities of any series, the Company may execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, temporary Securities (printed, lithographed or typewritten) of any authorized denomination. Such temporary Securities shall be substantially in the form of the definitive Securities in lieu of which they are issued, but with such omissions, insertions and variations as may be appropriate for temporary Securities, all as may be determined by the Company. Every temporary Security of any series shall be executed by the Company and be authenticated by the Trustee upon the same conditions and in substantially the same manner, and with like effect, as the definitive Securities of such series. Without unnecessary delay the Company will execute and will furnish definitive Securities of such series and thereupon any or all temporary Securities of such series may be surrendered in exchange therefor (without charge to the holders), at the office or agency of the Company designated for the purpose in the Borough of Manhattan, the City and State of New York, and the Trustee shall authenticate and such office or agency shall deliver in exchange for such temporary Securities an equal aggregate principal amount of definitive Securities of such series, unless the Company advises the Trustee to the effect that definitive Securities need not be executed and furnished until further notice from the Company. Until so exchanged, the temporary Securities of such series shall be entitled to the same benefits under this Indenture as definitive Securities of such series authenticated and delivered hereunder.

 

SECTION 2.07 Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost or Stolen Securities. In case any temporary or definitive Security shall become mutilated or be destroyed, lost or stolen, the Company (subject to the next succeeding sentence) shall execute, and upon the Company’s request the Trustee (subject as aforesaid) shall authenticate and deliver, a new Security of the same series, bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding, in exchange and substitution for the mutilated Security, or in lieu of and in substitution for the Security so destroyed, lost or stolen. In every case the applicant for a substituted Security shall furnish to the Company and the Trustee such security or indemnity as may be required by them to save each of them harmless, and, in every case of destruction, loss or theft, the applicant shall also furnish to the Company and the Trustee evidence to their satisfaction of the destruction, loss or theft of the applicant’s Security and of the ownership thereof. The Trustee may authenticate any such substituted Security and deliver the same upon the written request or authorization of any officer of the Company. Upon the issuance of any substituted Security, the Company may require the payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in relation thereto and any other expenses (including the fees and expenses of the Trustee) connected therewith. In case any Security that has matured or is about to mature shall become mutilated or be destroyed, lost or stolen, the Company may, instead of issuing a substitute Security, pay or authorize the payment of the same (without surrender thereof except in the case of a mutilated Security) if the applicant for such payment shall furnish to the Company and the Trustee such security or indemnity as they may require to save them harmless, and, in case of destruction, loss or theft, evidence to the satisfaction of the Company and the Trustee of the destruction, loss or theft of such Security and of the ownership thereof.

 

Every replacement Security issued pursuant to the provisions of this Section shall constitute an additional contractual obligation of the Company whether or not the mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall be found at any time, or be enforceable by anyone, and shall be entitled to all the benefits of this Indenture equally and proportionately with any and all other Securities of the same series duly issued hereunder. All Securities shall be held and owned upon the express condition that the foregoing provisions are exclusive with respect to the replacement or payment of mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities, and shall preclude (to the extent lawful) any and all other rights or remedies, notwithstanding any law or statute existing or hereafter enacted to the contrary with respect to the replacement or payment of negotiable instruments or other securities without their surrender.

 

SECTION 2.08 Cancellation. All Securities surrendered for the purpose of payment, redemption, exchange or registration of transfer shall, if surrendered to the Company or any paying agent, be delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, or, if surrendered to the Trustee, shall be cancelled by it, and no Securities shall be issued in lieu thereof except as expressly required or permitted by any of the provisions of this Indenture. On request of the Company at the time of such surrender, the Trustee shall deliver to the Company canceled Securities held by the Trustee. In the absence of such request the Trustee may dispose of canceled Securities in accordance with its standard procedures and deliver a certificate of disposition to the Company. If the Company shall otherwise acquire any of the Securities, however, such acquisition shall not operate as a redemption or satisfaction of the indebtedness represented by such Securities unless and until the same are delivered to the Trustee for cancellation.

 

SECTION 2.09 Benefits of Indenture. Nothing in this Indenture or in the Securities, express or implied, shall give or be construed to give to any Person, other than the parties hereto and the holders of the Securities any legal or equitable right, remedy or claim under or in respect of this Indenture, or under any covenant, condition or provision herein contained; all such covenants, conditions and provisions being for the sole benefit of the parties hereto and of the holders of the Securities.

 

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SECTION 2.10 Authenticating Agent. So long as any of the Securities of any series remain Outstanding there may be an Authenticating Agent for any or all such series of Securities which the Trustee shall have the right to appoint. Said Authenticating Agent shall be authorized to act on behalf of the Trustee to authenticate Securities of such series issued upon exchange, transfer or partial redemption thereof, and Securities so authenticated shall be entitled to the benefits of this Indenture and shall be valid and obligatory for all purposes as if authenticated by the Trustee hereunder. All references in this Indenture to the authentication of Securities by the Trustee shall be deemed to include authentication by an Authenticating Agent for such series. Each Authenticating Agent shall be acceptable to the Company and shall be a corporation that has a combined capital and surplus, as most recently reported or determined by it, sufficient under the laws of any jurisdiction under which it is organized or in which it is doing business to conduct a trust business, and that is otherwise authorized under such laws to conduct such business and is subject to supervision or examination by Federal or State authorities. If at any time any Authenticating Agent shall cease to be eligible in accordance with these provisions, it shall resign immediately.

 

Any Authenticating Agent may at any time resign by giving written notice of resignation to the Trustee and to the Company. The Trustee may at any time (and upon request by the Company shall) terminate the agency of any Authenticating Agent by giving written notice of termination to such Authenticating Agent and to the Company. Upon resignation, termination or cessation of eligibility of any Authenticating Agent, the Trustee may appoint an eligible successor Authenticating Agent acceptable to the Company. Any successor Authenticating Agent, upon acceptance of its appointment hereunder, shall become vested with all the rights, powers and duties of its predecessor hereunder as if originally named as an Authenticating Agent pursuant hereto.

 

SECTION 2.11 Global Securities.

 

(a) If the Company shall establish pursuant to Section 2.01 that some or all of the Securities of a particular series are to be issued as a Global Security, then the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall, in accordance with Section 2.04, authenticate and deliver, a Global Security that (i) shall represent, and shall be denominated in an amount equal to the aggregate principal amount of, the Outstanding Securities of such series which are to be issued as a Global Security, (ii) shall be registered in the name of the Depositary or its nominee, (iii) shall be delivered by the Trustee to the Depositary or pursuant to the Depositary’s instruction and (iv) shall bear a legend substantially to the following effect: “Except as otherwise provided in Section 2.11 of the Indenture, this Security may be transferred, in whole but not in part, only to another nominee of the Depositary or to a successor Depositary or to a nominee of such successor Depositary.”

 

(b) Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 2.05, the Global Security of a series may be transferred, in whole but not in part and in the manner provided in Section 2.05, only to another nominee of the Depositary for such series, or to a successor Depositary for such series selected or approved by the Company or to a nominee of such successor Depositary.

 

(c) If at any time the Depositary for a series of the Securities notifies the Company that it is unwilling or unable to continue as Depositary for such series or if at any time the Depositary for such series shall no longer be registered or in good standing under the Exchange Act, or other applicable statute or regulation, and a successor Depositary for such series is not appointed by the Company within 90 days after the Company receives such notice or becomes aware of such condition, as the case may be, this Section 2.11 shall no longer be applicable to the Securities of such series and the Company will execute, and subject to Section 2.05, the Trustee will authenticate and deliver the Securities of such series in definitive registered form without coupons, in authorized denominations, and in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security of such series in exchange for such Global Security. In addition, the Company may at any time determine that the Securities of any series shall no longer be represented by a Global Security and that the provisions of this Section 2.11 shall no longer apply to the Securities of such series. In such event the Company will execute and subject to Section 2.05, the Trustee, upon receipt of an Officers’ Certificate evidencing such determination by the Company, will authenticate and deliver the Securities of such series in definitive registered form without coupons, in authorized denominations, and in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security of such series in exchange for such Global Security. Upon the exchange of the Global Security for such Securities in definitive registered form without coupons, in authorized denominations, the Global Security shall be canceled by the Trustee. Such Securities in definitive registered form issued in exchange for the Global Security pursuant to this Section 2.11(c) shall be registered in such names and in such authorized denominations as the Depositary, pursuant to instructions from its direct or indirect participants or otherwise, shall instruct the Trustee. The Trustee shall deliver such Securities to the Depositary for delivery to the Persons in whose names such Securities are so registered.

 

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ARTICLE III 

REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES AND SINKING FUND PROVISIONS

 

SECTION 3.01 Redemption. The Company may redeem the Securities of any series issued hereunder on and after the dates and in accordance with the terms established for such series pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof.

 

SECTION 3.02 Notice of Redemption.

 

(a) In case the Company shall desire to exercise such right to redeem all or, as the case may be, a portion of the Securities of any series in accordance with the right reserved so to do, the Company shall, or shall cause the Trustee to, give notice of such redemption to holders of the Securities of such series to be redeemed by mailing, first class postage prepaid, a notice of such redemption not less than 30 days and not more than 90 days before the date fixed for redemption of that series to such holders at their last addresses as they shall appear upon the Security Register unless a shorter period is specified in the Securities to be redeemed. Any notice that is mailed in the manner herein provided shall be conclusively presumed to have been duly given, whether or not the registered holder receives the notice. In any case, failure duly to give such notice to the holder of any Security of any series designated for redemption in whole or in part, or any defect in the notice, shall not affect the validity of the proceedings for the redemption of any other Securities of such series or any other series. In the case of any redemption of Securities prior to the expiration of any restriction on such redemption provided in the terms of such Securities or elsewhere in this Indenture, the Company shall furnish the Trustee with an Officers’ Certificate evidencing compliance with any such restriction.

 

Each such notice of redemption shall specify the date fixed for redemption and the redemption price at which Securities of that series are to be redeemed, and shall state that payment of the redemption price of such Securities to be redeemed will be made at the office or agency of the Company in the Borough of Manhattan, the City and State of New York, upon presentation and surrender of such Securities, that interest accrued to the date fixed for redemption will be paid as specified in said notice, that from and after said date interest will cease to accrue and that the redemption is for a sinking fund, if such is the case. If less than all the Securities of a series are to be redeemed, the notice to the holders of Securities of that series to be redeemed in whole or in part shall specify the particular Securities to be so redeemed. In case any Security is to be redeemed in part only, the notice that relates to such Security shall state the portion of the principal amount thereof to be redeemed, and shall state that on and after the redemption date, upon surrender of such Security, a new Security or Securities of such series in principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion thereof will be issued.

 

(b) If less than all the Securities of a series are to be redeemed, the Company shall give the Trustee at least 30 days’ notice in advance of the date fixed for redemption as to the aggregate principal amount of Securities of the series to be redeemed, and thereupon the Trustee shall select, by lot or in such other manner as it shall deem appropriate and fair in its discretion and that may provide for the selection of a portion or portions (equal to one thousand U.S. dollars ($1,000) or any integral multiple thereof) of the principal amount of such Securities of a denomination larger than $1,000, the Securities to be redeemed and shall thereafter promptly notify the Company in writing of the numbers of the Securities to be redeemed, in whole or in part. The Company may, if and whenever it shall so elect, by delivery of instructions signed on its behalf by its President or any Vice President, instruct the Trustee or any paying agent to call all or any part of the Securities of a particular series for redemption and to give notice of redemption in the manner set forth in this Section, such notice to be in the name of the Company or its own name as the Trustee or such paying agent may deem advisable. In any case in which notice of redemption is to be given by the Trustee or any such paying agent, the Company shall deliver or cause to be delivered to, or permit to remain with, the Trustee or such paying agent, as the case may be, such Security Register, transfer books or other records, or suitable copies or extracts therefrom, sufficient to enable the Trustee or such paying agent to give any notice by mail that may be required under the provisions of this Section.

 

SECTION 3.03 Payment Upon Redemption.

 

(a) If the giving of notice of redemption shall have been completed as above provided, the Securities or portions of Securities of the series to be redeemed specified in such notice shall become due and payable on the date and at the place stated in such notice at the applicable redemption price, together with interest accrued to the date fixed for redemption and interest on such Securities or portions of Securities shall cease to accrue on and after the date fixed for redemption, unless the Company shall default in the payment of such redemption price and accrued interest with respect to any such Security or portion thereof. On presentation and surrender of such Securities on or after the date fixed for redemption at the place of payment specified in the notice, said Securities shall be paid and redeemed at the applicable redemption price for such series, together with interest accrued thereon to the date fixed for redemption (but if the date fixed for redemption is an interest payment date, the interest installment payable on such date shall be payable to the registered holder at the close of business on the applicable record date pursuant to Section 2.03).

 

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(b) Upon presentation of any Security of such series that is to be redeemed in part only, the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and the office or agency where the Security is presented shall deliver to the holder thereof, at the expense of the Company, a new Security of the same series of authorized denominations in principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion of the Security so presented.

 

SECTION 3.04 Sinking Fund. The provisions of Sections 3.04, 3.05 and 3.06 shall be applicable to any sinking fund for the retirement of Securities of a series, except as otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 2.01 for Securities of such series.

 

The minimum amount of any sinking fund payment provided for by the terms of Securities of any series is herein referred to as a “mandatory sinking fund payment,” and any payment in excess of such minimum amount provided for by the terms of Securities of any series is herein referred to as an “optional sinking fund payment.” If provided for by the terms of Securities of any series, the cash amount of any sinking fund payment may be subject to reduction as provided in Section 3.05. Each sinking fund payment shall be applied to the redemption of Securities of any series as provided for by the terms of Securities of such series.

 

SECTION 3.05 Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities. The Company (i) may deliver Outstanding Securities of a series (other than any Securities previously called for redemption) and (ii) may apply as a credit Securities of a series that have been redeemed either at the election of the Company pursuant to the terms of such Securities or through the application of permitted optional sinking fund payments pursuant to the terms of such Securities, in each case in satisfaction of all or any part of any sinking fund payment with respect to the Securities of such series required to be made pursuant to the terms of such Securities as provided for by the terms of such series, provided that such Securities have not been previously so credited. Such Securities shall be received and credited for such purpose by the Trustee at the redemption price specified in such Securities for redemption through operation of the sinking fund and the amount of such sinking fund payment shall be reduced accordingly.

 

SECTION 3.06 Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund. Not less than 45 days prior to each sinking fund payment date for any series of Securities, the Company will deliver to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate specifying the amount of the next ensuing sinking fund payment for that series pursuant to the terms of the series, the portion thereof, if any, that is to be satisfied by delivering and crediting Securities of that series pursuant to Section 3.05 and the basis for such credit and will, together with such Officers’ Certificate, deliver to the Trustee any Securities to be so delivered. Not less than 30 days before each such sinking fund payment date the Trustee shall select the Securities to be redeemed upon such sinking fund payment date in the manner specified in Section 3.02 and cause notice of the redemption thereof to be given in the name of and at the expense of the Company in the manner provided in Section 3.02. Such notice having been duly given, the redemption of such Securities shall be made upon the terms and in the manner stated in Section 3.03.

 

ARTICLE IV 

COVENANTS

 

SECTION 4.01 Payment of Principal, Premium and Interest. The Company will duly and punctually pay or cause to be paid the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest on the Securities of that series at the time and place and in the manner provided herein and established with respect to such Securities.

 

SECTION 4.02 Maintenance of Office or Agency. So long as any series of the Securities remain Outstanding, the Company agrees to maintain an office or agency in the Borough of Manhattan, the City and State of New York, with respect to each such series and at such other location or locations as may be designated as provided in this Section 4.02, where (i) Securities of that series may be presented or surrendered for payment, (ii) Securities of that series may be presented as herein above authorized for registration of transfer and exchange, and (iii) notices and demands to or upon the Company in respect of the Securities of that series and this Indenture may be given or served, such designation to continue with respect to such office or agency until the Company shall, by written notice signed by its President or a Vice President and delivered to the trustee, designate some other office or agency for such purposes or any of them. If at any time the Company shall fail to maintain any such required office or agency or shall fail to furnish the Trustee with the address thereof, such presentations, notices and demands may be made or served at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, and the Company hereby appoints the Trustee as its agent to receive all such presentations, notices and demands.

 

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SECTION 4.03 Paying Agents.

 

(a) If the Company shall appoint one or more paying agents for all or any series of the Securities, other than the Trustee, the Company will cause each such paying agent to execute and deliver to the Trustee an instrument in which such agent shall agree with the Trustee, subject to the provisions of this Section:

 

(1) that it will hold all sums held by it as such agent for the payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on the Securities of that series (whether such sums have been paid to it by the Company or by any other obligor of such Securities) in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled thereto;

 

(2) that it will give the Trustee notice of any failure by the Company (or by any other obligor of such Securities) to make any payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on the Securities of that series when the same shall be due and payable;

 

(3) that it will, at any time during the continuance of any failure referred to in the preceding paragraph (a)(2) above, upon the written request of the Trustee, forthwith pay to the Trustee all sums so held in trust by such paying agent; and

 

(4) that it will perform all other duties of paying agent as set forth in this Indenture.

 

(b) If the Company shall act as its own paying agent with respect to any series of the Securities, it will on or before each due date of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on Securities of that series, set aside, segregate and hold in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled thereto a sum sufficient with monies held by all other paying agents to pay such principal (and premium, if any) or interest so becoming due on Securities of that series until such sums shall be paid to such

 

Persons or otherwise disposed of as herein provided and will promptly notify the Trustee of such action, or any failure (by it or any other obligor on such Securities) to take such action. Whenever the Company shall have one or more paying agents for any series of Securities, it will, prior to each due date of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on any Securities of that series, deposit with the paying agent a sum sufficient to pay the principal (an premium, if any) or interest so becoming due, such sum to be held in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled to such principal, premium or interest, and (unless such paying agent is the Trustee) the Company will promptly notify the Trustee of this action or failure so to act.

 

(c) Notwithstanding anything in this Section to the contrary, (i) the agreement to hold sums in trust as provided in this Section is subject to the provisions of Section 11.05, and (ii) the Company may at any time, for the purpose of obtaining the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture or for any other purpose, pay, or direct any paying agent to pay, to the Trustee all sums held in trust by the Company or such paying agent, such sums to be held by the Trustee upon the same terms and conditions as those upon which such sums were held by the Company or such paying agent; and, upon such payment by any paying agent to the Trustee, such paying agent shall be released from all further liability with respect to such money.

 

SECTION 4.04 Appointment to Fill Vacancy in Office of Trustee. The Company, whenever necessary to avoid or fill a vacancy in the office of Trustee, will appoint, in the manner provided in Section 7.10, a Trustee, so that there shall at all times be a Trustee hereunder.

 

SECTION 4.05 Compliance with Consolidation Provisions. The Company will not, while any of the Securities remain Outstanding, consolidate with or merge into any other Person, in either case where the Company is not the survivor of such transaction, or sell or convey all or substantially all of its property to any other company unless the provisions of Article X hereof are complied with.

 

ARTICLE V 

SECURITYHOLDERS’ LISTS AND REPORTS 

BY THE COMPANY AND THE TRUSTEE

 

SECTION 5.01 Company to Furnish Trustee Names and Addresses of Securityholders. If the Company is not the Security Register, the Company will furnish or use reasonable efforts to cause to be furnished to the Trustee (a) on each regular record date (as defined in Section 2.03) a list, in such form as the Trustee may reasonably require, of the names and addresses of the holders of each series of Securities as of such regular record date, provided that the Company shall not be obligated to furnish or cause to furnish such list at any time that the list shall not differ in any respect from the most recent list furnished to the Trustee by the Company and (b) at such other times as the Trustee may request in writing within 30 days after the receipt by the Company of any such request, a list of similar form and content as of a date not more than 15 days prior to the time such list is furnished; provided, however, that, in either case, no such list need be furnished for any series for which the Trustee shall be the Security Registrar.

 

SECTION 5.02 Preservation of Information; Communications with Securityholders.

 

(a) The Trustee shall preserve, in as current a form as is reasonably practicable, all information as to the names and addresses of the holders of Securities contained in the most recent list furnished to it as provided in Section 5.01 and as to the names and addresses of holders of Securities received by the Trustee in its capacity as Security Registrar (if acting in such capacity) and shall otherwise comply with Section 312(a) of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

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(b) The Trustee may destroy any list furnished to it as provided in Section 5.01 upon receipt of a new list so furnished.

 

(c) Securityholders may communicate as provided in Section 312(b) of the Trust Indenture Act with other Securityholders with respect to their rights under this Indenture or under the Securities.

 

SECTION 5.03 Reports by the Company.

 

(a) The Company covenants and agrees to file with the Trustee, within 15 days after the Company is required to file the same with the Commission, copies of the annual reports and of the information, documents and other reports (or copies of such portions of any of the foregoing as the Commission may from time to time by rules and regulations prescribe) that the Company may be required to file with the Commission pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act; or, if the Company is not required to file information, documents or reports pursuant to either of such sections, then to file with the Trustee and the Commission, in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed from time to time by the Commission, such of the supplementary and periodic information, documents and reports that may be required pursuant to Section 13 of the Exchange Act, in respect of a security listed and registered on a national securities exchange as may be prescribed from time to time in such rules and regulations; provided, however, the Company shall not be required to deliver to the Trustee any materials for which the Company has sought and received confidential treatment by the Commission. The Company also shall comply with the other provisions of Section 314(a) of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

(b) The Company covenants and agrees to file with the Trustee and the Commission, in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed from to time by the Commission, such additional information, documents and reports with respect to compliance by the Company with the conditions and covenants provided for in this Indenture as may be required from time to time by such rules and regulations.

 

(c) The Company covenants and agrees to transmit by mail, first class postage prepaid, or reputable over-night delivery service that provides for evidence of receipt, to the Securityholders, as their names and addresses appear upon the Security Register, within 30 days after the filing thereof with the Trustee, such summaries of any information, documents and reports required to be filed by the Company pursuant to subsections (a) and (b) of this Section as may be required by rules and regulations prescribed from time to time by the Commission.

 

SECTION 5.04 Reports by the Trustee.

 

(a) The Trustee shall transmit to holders as provided in Section 313 of the Trust Indenture Act such reports concerning the Trustee and its actions under this Indenture as may be required by Section 313 of the Trust Indenture Act at the times and in the manner provided by the Trust Indenture Act.

 

(b) A copy of each such report shall, at the time of such transmission to Securityholders, be filed by the Trustee with the Company, with each securities exchange upon which any Securities are listed (if so listed) and, if required by Section 313 of the Trust Indenture Act, also with the Commission. The Company agrees to notify the Trustee when any Securities become listed on any securities exchange.

 

ARTICLE VI 

REMEDIES OF THE TRUSTEE AND SECURITYHOLDERS 

ON EVENT OF DEFAULT

 

SECTION 6.01 Events of Default.

 

(a) Whenever used herein with respect to Securities of a particular series, “Event of Default” means any one or more of the following events that has occurred and is continuing:

 

(1) the Company defaults in the payment of any installment of interest upon any of the Securities of that series, as and when the same shall become due and payable, and continuance of such default for a period of 90 days; provided, however, that a valid extension of an interest payment period by the Company in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental hereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of interest for this purpose;

 

(2) the Company defaults in the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any, on) any of the Securities of that series as and when the same shall become due and payable whether at maturity, upon redemption, by declaration or otherwise, or in any payment required by any sinking or analogous fund established with respect to that series; provided, however, that a valid extension of the maturity of such Securities in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental hereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of principal or premium, if any;

 

(3) the Company fails to observe or perform any other of its covenants or agreements with respect to that series contained in this Indenture or otherwise established with respect to that series of Securities pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof (other than a covenant or agreement that has been expressly included in this Indenture solely for the benefit of one or more series of Securities other than such series) for a period of 90 days after the date on which written notice of such failure, requiring the same to be remedied and stating that such notice is a “Notice of Default” hereunder, shall have been given to the Company by the Trustee, by registered or certified mail, or to the Company and the Trustee by the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the Securities of that series at the time Outstanding;

 

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(4) the Company pursuant to or within the meaning of any Bankruptcy Law (i) commences a voluntary case, (ii) consents to the entry of an order for relief against it in an involuntary case, (iii) consents to the appointment of a Custodian of it or for all or substantially all of its property or (iv) makes a general assignment for the benefit of its creditors; or

 

(5) a court of competent jurisdiction enters an order under any Bankruptcy Law that (i) is for relief against the Company in an involuntary case, (ii) appoints a Custodian of the Company for all or substantially all of its property, or (iii) orders the liquidation of the Company, and the order or decree remains unstayed and in effect for 90 consecutive days.

 

(b) In each and every such case, unless the principal of all the Securities of that series shall have already become due and payable, either the Trustee or the holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that series then Outstanding hereunder, by notice in writing to the Company (and to the Trustee if given by such Securityholders), may declare the principal (or, if any Securities of that series are discount securities, that portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms of that series pursuant to Section 2.01(a)(16)) of (and premium, if any, on) and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all the Securities of that series to be due and payable immediately, and upon any such declaration the same shall become and shall be immediately due and payable.

 

(c) At any time after the principal of the Securities of that series shall have been so declared due and payable, and before a judgment or decree for the payment of the moneys due shall have been obtained or entered as hereinafter provided, the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that series then Outstanding hereunder (or, by action at a meeting of holders of the Securities of such series in accordance with Section 8.09, the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such series then Outstanding represented at such meeting), by written notice to the Company and the Trustee, may rescind and annul such declaration and its consequences if: (i) the Company has paid or deposited with the Trustee a sum sufficient to pay all matured installments of interest upon all the Securities of that series and the principal of (and premium, if any, on) any and all Securities of that series that shall have become due otherwise than by acceleration and (ii) any and all Events of Default under this Indenture with respect to such series, other than the nonpayment of principal of (and premium, if any, on) and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on Securities of that series that shall have become due solely because of such acceleration, shall have been remedied, cured or waived as provided in Section 6.06. No such rescission and annulment shall extend to or shall affect any subsequent default or impair any right consequent thereon.

 

(d) In case the Trustee shall have proceeded to enforce any right with respect to Securities of that series under this Indenture and such proceedings shall have been discontinued or abandoned because of such rescission or annulment or for any other reason or shall have been determined adversely to the Trustee, then and in every such case, subject to any determination in such proceedings, the Company, and the Trustee shall be restored respectively to their former positions and rights hereunder, and all rights, remedies and powers of the Company and the Trustee shall continue as though no such proceedings had been taken.

 

SECTION 6.02 Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee.

 

(a) The Company covenants that (1) in case it shall default in the payment of any installment of interest on any of the Securities of a series, or any payment required by any sinking or analogous fund established with respect to that series as and when the same shall have become due and payable, and such default shall have continued for a period of 90 Business Days, or (2) in case it shall default in the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any, on) any of the Securities of a series when the same shall have become due and payable, whether upon maturity of the Securities of a series or upon redemption or upon declaration or otherwise, then, upon demand of the Trustee, the Company will pay to the Trustee, for the benefit of the holders of the Securities of that series, the whole amount that then shall have been become due and payable on all such Securities for principal (and premium, if any) or interest, or both, as the case may be, with interest upon the overdue principal (and premium, if any) and (to the extent that payment of such interest is enforceable under applicable law) upon overdue installments of interest at the rate per annum expressed in the Securities of that series; and, in addition thereto, such further amount as shall be sufficient to cover the costs and expenses of collection, and the amount payable to the Trustee under Section 7.06.

 

(b) If the Company shall fail to pay such amounts forthwith upon such demand, the Trustee, in its own name and as trustee of an express trust, shall be entitled and empowered to institute any action or proceedings at law or in equity for the collection of the sums so due and unpaid, and may prosecute any such action or proceeding to judgment or final decree, and may enforce any such judgment or final decree against the Company or other obligor upon the Securities of that series and collect the moneys adjudged or decreed to be payable in the manner provided by law out of the property of the Company or other obligor upon the Securities of that series, wherever situated.

 

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(c) In case of any receivership, insolvency, liquidation, bankruptcy, reorganization, readjustment, arrangement, composition or judicial proceedings affected the Company, or its creditors or property, the Trustee shall have power to intervene in such proceedings and take any action therein that may be permitted by the court and shall (except as may be otherwise provided by law) be entitled to file such proofs of claim and other papers and documents as may be necessary or advisable in order to have the claims of the Trustee and of the holders of Securities of such series allowed for the entire amount due and payable by the Company under this Indenture at the date of institution of such proceedings and for any additional amount that may become due and payable by the Company after such date, and to collect and receive any moneys or other property payable or deliverable on any such claim, and to distribute the same after the deduction of the amount payable to the Trustee under Section 7.06; and any receiver, assignee or trustee in bankruptcy or reorganization is hereby authorized by each of the holders of Securities of such series to make such payments to the Trustee, and, in the event that the Trustee shall consent to the making of such payments directly to such Securityholders, to pay to the Trustee any amount due it under Section 7.06.

 

(d) All rights of action and of asserting claims under this Indenture, or under any of the terms established with respect to Securities of that series, may be enforced by the Trustee without the possession of any of such Securities, or the production thereof at any trial or other proceeding relative thereto, and any such suit or proceeding instituted by the Trustee shall be brought in its own name as trustee of an express trust, and any recovery of judgment shall, after provision for payment to the Trustee of any amounts due under Section 7.06, be for the ratable benefit of the holders of the Securities of such series.

 

In case of an Event of Default hereunder, the Trustee may in its discretion proceed to protect and enforce the rights vested in it by this Indenture by such appropriate judicial proceedings as the Trustee shall deem most effectual to protect and enforce any of such rights, either at law or in equity or in bankruptcy or otherwise, whether for the specific enforcement of any covenant or agreement contained in this Indenture or in aid of the exercise of any power granted in this Indenture, or to enforce any other legal or equitable right vested in the Trustee by this Indenture or by law.

 

Nothing contained herein shall be deemed to authorize the Trustee to authorize or consent to or accept or adopt on behalf of any Securityholder any plan of reorganization, arrangement, adjustment or composition affecting the Securities of that series or the rights of any holder thereof or to authorize the Trustee to vote in respect of the claim of any Securityholder in any such proceeding.

 

SECTION 6.03 Application of Moneys Collected. Any moneys collected by the Trustee pursuant to this Article with respect to a particular series of Securities shall be applied in the following order, at the date or dates fixed by the Trustee and, in case of the distribution of such moneys on account of principal (or premium, if any) or interest, upon presentation of the Securities of that series, and notation thereon the payment, if only partially paid, and upon surrender thereof if fully paid:

 

FIRST: To the payment of costs and expenses of collection and of all amounts payable to the Trustee under Section 7.06; and

 

SECOND: To the payment of the amounts then due and unpaid upon Securities of such series for principal (and premium, if any) and interest, in respect of which or for the benefit of which such money has been collected, ratably, without preference or priority of any kind, according to the amounts due and payable on such Securities for principal (and premium, if any) and interest, respectively.

 

SECTION 6.04 Limitation on Suits. No holder of any Security of any series shall have any right by virtue or by availing of any provision of this Indenture to institute any suit, action or proceeding in equity or at law upon or under or with respect to this Indenture or for the appointment of a receiver or trustee, or for any other remedy hereunder, unless (i) such holder previously shall have given to the Trustee written notice of an Event of Default and of the continuance thereof with respect to the Securities of such series specifying such Event of Default, as hereinbefore provided; (ii) the holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such series then Outstanding shall have made written request upon the Trustee to institute such action, suit or proceeding in its own name as trustee hereunder; (iii) such holder or holders shall have offered to the Trustee such reasonable indemnity as it may require against the costs, expenses and liabilities to be incurred therein or thereby; and (iv) the Trustee for 60 days after its receipt of such notice, request and offer of indemnity, shall have failed to institute any such action, suit or proceeding and (v) during such 60 day period, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the Securities of that series (or such amount as shall have acted at a meeting of the holders of Securities of such series pursuant to the provisions of this Indenture) do not give the Trustee a direction inconsistent with the request; provided, however, that no one or more of such holders may use this Indenture to prejudice the rights of another holder or to obtain preference or priority over another holder.

 

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Notwithstanding anything contained herein to the contrary, any other provisions of this Indenture, the right of any holder of any Security to receive payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest on such Security, as therein provided, on or after the respective due dates expressed in such Security (or in the case of redemption, on the redemption date), or to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment on or after such respective dates or redemption date, shall not be impaired or affected without the consent of such holder and by accepting a Security hereunder it is expressly understood, intended and covenanted by the taker and holder of every Security of such series with every other such taker and holder and the Trustee, that no one or more holders of Securities of such series shall have any right in any manner whatsoever by virtue or by availing of any provision of this Indenture to affect, disturb or prejudice the rights of the holders of any other of such Securities, or to obtain or seek to obtain priority over or preference to any other such holder, or to enforce any right under this Indenture, except in the manner herein provided and for the equal, ratable and common benefit of all holders of Securities of such series. For the protection and enforcement of the provisions of this Section, each and every Securityholder and the Trustee shall be entitled to such relief as can be given either at law or in equity.

 

SECTION 6.05 Rights and Remedies Cumulative; Delay or Omission Not Waiver.

 

(a) Except as otherwise provided in Section 2.07, all powers and remedies given by this Article to the Trustee or to the Securityholders shall, to the extent permitted by law, be deemed cumulative and not exclusive of any other powers and remedies available to the Trustee or the holders of the Securities, by judicial proceedings or otherwise, to enforce the performance or observance of the covenants and agreements contained in this Indenture or otherwise established with respect to such Securities.

 

(b) No delay or omission of the Trustee or of any holder of any of the Securities to exercise any right or power accruing upon any Event of Default occurring and continuing as aforesaid shall impair any such right or power, or shall be construed to be a waiver of any such default or on acquiescence therein; and, subject to the provisions of Section 6.04, every power and remedy given by this Article or by law to the Trustee or the Securityholders may be exercised from time to time, and as often as shall be deemed expedient, by the Trustee or by the Securityholders.

 

SECTION 6.06 Control by Securityholders. The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding, determined in accordance with Section 8.01, shall have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the Trustee with respect to such series; provided, however, that such direction shall not be in conflict with any rule of law or with this Indenture or be unduly prejudicial to the rights of holders of Securities of any other series at the time Outstanding determined in accordance with Section 8.01. Subject to the provisions of Section 7.01, the Trustee shall have the right to decline to follow any such direction if the Trustee in good faith shall, by a Responsible Officer or Officers of the Trustee, determine that the proceeding so directed would involve the Trustee in personal liability. The holders either (a) through the written consent of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding or (b) by action at a meeting of holders of the Securities of such series in accordance with Section 8.09, by the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such series then Outstanding represented at such meeting, may on behalf of the holders of all of the Securities of such series waive any past default in the performance of any of the covenants contained herein or established pursuant to Section 2.01 with respect to such series and its consequences, except a default in the payment of the principal of, or premium, if any, or interest on, any of the Securities of that series as and when the same shall become due by the terms of such Securities otherwise than by acceleration (unless such default has been cured and a sum sufficient to pay all matured installments of interest and principal and any premium has been deposited with the Trustee (in accordance with Section 6.01(c)) and except in respect a provision hereof which, under Section 9.02, cannot be modified or amended without the consent of the holders of each Outstanding Security affected; provided however that this Section shall not limit the right of holders of Securities of a series to rescind and annul any acceleration as set forth in Section 6.01. Upon any such waiver, the default covered thereby shall be deemed to be cured for all purposes of this Indenture and the Company, the Trustee and the holders of the Securities of such series shall be restored to their former positions and rights hereunder, respectively; but no such waiver shall extend to any subsequent or other default or impair any right consequent thereon. The provisions which otherwise would be automatically deemed to be contained in this Indenture pursuant to Section (316)(a)(1) of the Trust Indenture Act are hereby expressly excluded from this Indenture, except to the extent such provisions are expressly included herein.

 

SECTION 6.07 Undertaking to Pay Costs. All parties to this Indenture agree, and each holder of any Securities by such holder’s acceptance thereof shall be deemed to have agreed, that any court may in its discretion require, in any suit for the enforcement of any right or remedy under this Indenture, or in any suit against the Trustee for any action taken or omitted by it as Trustee, the filing by any party litigant in such suit of an undertaking to pay the costs of such suit, and that such court may in its discretion assess reasonable costs, including reasonable attorneys’ fees, against any party litigant in such suit, having due regard to the merits and good faith of the claims or defenses made by such party litigant; but the provisions of this Section shall not apply to any suit instituted by the Trustee, to any suit instituted by any Securityholder, or group of Securityholders, holding more than 10% in aggregate principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of any series, or to any suit instituted by any Securityholder for the enforcement of the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any) or interest on any Security of such series, on or after the respective due dates expressed in such Security or established pursuant to this Indenture.

 

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ARTICLE VII 

CONCERNING THE TRUSTEE

 

SECTION 7.01 Certain Duties and Responsibilities of Trustee.

 

(a) The Trustee, prior to the occurrence of an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of a series and after the curing of all Events of Default with respect to the Securities of that series that may have occurred, shall undertake to perform with respect to the Securities of such series such duties and only such duties as are specifically set forth in this Indenture, and no implied covenants shall be read into this Indenture against the Trustee. In case an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of a series has occurred (that has not been cured or waived), the Trustee shall exercise with respect to Securities of that series such of the rights and powers vested in it by this Indenture, and use the same degree of care and skill in their exercise, as a prudent man would exercise or use under the circumstances in the conduct of his own affairs.

 

(b) No provision of this Indenture shall be construed to relieve the Trustee from liability for its own negligent action, its own negligent failure to act, or its own willful misconduct, except that:

 

(1) prior to the occurrence of an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of a series and after the curing or waiving of all such Events of Default with respect to that series that may have occurred:

 

(i) the duties and obligations of the Trustee shall with respect to the Securities of such series be determined solely by the express provisions of this Indenture, and the Trustee shall not be liable with respect to the Securities of such series except for the performance of such duties and obligations as are specifically set forth in this Indenture, and no implied covenants or obligations shall be read into this Indenture against the Trustee; and

 

(ii) in the absence of bad faith on the part of the Trustee, the Trustee may with respect to the Securities of such series conclusively rely, as to the truth of the statements and the correctness of the opinions expressed therein, upon any certificates or opinions furnished to the Trustee and conforming to the requirements of this Indenture; but in the case of any such certificates or opinions that by any provision hereof are specifically required to be furnished to the Trustee, the Trustee shall be under a duty to examine the same to determine whether or not they conform to the requirement of this Indenture;

 

(2) the Trustee shall not be liable for any error of judgment made in good faith by a Responsible Officer or Responsible Officers of the Trustee, unless it shall be proved that the Trustee, was negligent in ascertaining the pertinent facts;

 

(3) the Trustee shall not be liable with respect to any action taken or omitted to be taken by it in good faith in accordance with the direction of the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding relating to the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred upon the Trustee under this Indenture with respect to the Securities of that series; and

 

(4) None of the provisions contained in this Indenture shall require the Trustee to expend or risk its own funds or otherwise incur personal financial liability in the performance of any of its duties or in the exercise of any of its rights or powers, if there is reasonable ground for believing that the repayment of such funds or liability is not reasonably assured to it under the terms of this Indenture or adequate indemnity against such risk is not reasonably assured to it.

 

SECTION 7.02 Certain Rights of Trustee. Except as otherwise provided in Section 7.01:

 

(a) The Trustee may rely and shall be protected in acting or refraining from acting upon any resolution, certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, consent, order, approval, bond, security or other paper or document believed by it to be genuine and to have been signed or presented by the proper party or parties;

 

(b) Any request, direction, order or demand of the Company mentioned herein shall be sufficiently evidenced by a Board Resolution or an instrument signed in the name of the Company, by the President or any Vice President and by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary or the Treasurer or an Assistant Treasurer thereof (unless other evidence in respect thereof is specifically prescribed herein);

 

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(c) The Trustee may consult with counsel and the written advice of such counsel or any Opinion of Counsel shall be full and complete authorization and protection in respect of any action taken or suffered or omitted hereunder in good faith and in reliance thereon;

 

(d) The Trustee shall be under no obligation to exercise any of the rights or powers vested in it by this Indenture at the request, order or direction of any of the Securityholders, pursuant to the provisions of this Indenture, unless such Securityholders shall have offered to the Trustee reasonable security or indemnity against the costs, expenses and liabilities that may be incurred therein or thereby; nothing contained herein shall, however, relieve the Trustee of the obligation, upon the occurrence of an Event of Default with respect to a series of the Securities (that has not been cured or waived) to exercise with respect to Securities of that series such of the rights and powers vested in it by this Indenture, and to use the same degree of care and skill in their exercise, as a prudent man would exercise or use under the circumstances in the conduct of his own affairs;

 

(e) The Trustee shall not be liable for any action taken or omitted to be taken by it in good faith and believed by it to be authorized or within the discretion or rights or powers conferred upon it by this Indenture;

 

(f) The Trustee shall not be bound to make any investigation into the facts or matters stated in any resolution, certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, consent, order, approval, bond, security, or other papers or documents, unless requested in writing so to do by the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of the particular series affected thereby (determined as provided in Section 8.04); provided, however, that if the payment within a reasonable time to the Trustee of the costs, expenses or liabilities likely to be incurred by it in the making of such investigation is, in the opinion of the Trustee, not reasonably assured to the Trustee by the security afforded to it by the terms of this Indenture, the Trustee may require reasonable indemnity against such costs, expenses or liabilities as a condition to so proceeding. The reasonable expense of every such examination shall be paid by the Company or, if paid by the Trustee, shall be repaid by the Company upon demand; and

 

(g) The Trustee may execute any of the trusts or powers hereunder or perform any duties hereunder either directly or by or through agents or attorneys and the Trustee shall not be responsible for any misconduct or negligence on the part of any agent or attorney appointed with due care by it hereunder.

 

SECTION 7.03 Trustee Not Responsible for Recitals or Issuance of Securities.

 

(a) The recitals contained herein and in the Securities shall be taken as the statements of the Company, and the Trustee assumes no responsibility for the correctness of the same.

 

(b) The Trustee makes no representations as to the validity or sufficiency of this Indenture or of the Securities.

 

(c) The Trustee shall not be accountable for the use or application by the Company of any of the Securities or of the proceeds of such Securities, or for the use or application of any moneys paid over by the Trustee in accordance with any provision of this Indenture or established pursuant to Section 2.01, or for the use or application of any moneys received by any paying agent other than the Trustee.

 

SECTION 7.04 May Hold Securities. The Trustee or any paying agent or Security Registrar, in its individual or any other capacity, may become the owner or pledgee of Securities with the same rights it would have if it were not Trustee, paying agent or Security Registrar.

 

SECTION 7.05 Moneys Held in Trust. Subject to the provisions of Section 11.05, all moneys received by the Trustee shall, until used or applied as herein provided, be held in trust for the purposes for which they were received, but need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by law. The Trustee shall be under no liability for interest on any moneys received by it hereunder except such as it may agree with the Company to pay thereon.

 

SECTION 7.06 Compensation and Reimbursement.

 

(a) The Company covenants and agrees to pay to the Trustee, and the Trustee shall be entitled to, such reasonable compensation (which shall not be limited by any provision of law in regard to the compensation of a trustee of an express trust), as the Company, and the Trustee may from time to time agree in writing, for all services rendered by it in the execution of the trusts hereby created and in the exercise and performance of any of the powers and duties hereunder of the Trustee, and, except as otherwise expressly provided herein, the Company will pay or reimburse the Trustee upon its request for all reasonable expenses, disbursements and advances incurred or made by the Trustee in accordance with any of the provisions of this Indenture (including the reasonable compensation and the expenses and disbursements of its counsel and of all Persons not regularly in its employ) except any such expense, disbursement or advance as may arise from its negligence or bad faith. The Company also covenants to indemnify the Trustee (and its officers, agents, directors and employees) for, and to hold it harmless against, any loss, liability or expense incurred without negligence or bad faith on the part of the Trustee and arising out of or in connection with the acceptance or administration of this trust, including the costs and expenses of defending itself against any claim of liability in the premises.

 

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(b) The obligations of the Company under this Section to compensate and indemnify the Trustee and to pay or reimburse the Trustee for expenses, disbursements and advances shall constitute additional indebtedness hereunder. Such additional indebtedness shall be secured by a lien prior to that of the Securities upon all property and funds held or collected by the Trustee as such, except funds held in trust for the benefit of the holders of particular Securities.

 

SECTION 7.07 Reliance on Officers’ Certificate. Except as otherwise provided in Section 7.01, whenever in the administration of the provisions of this Indenture the Trustee shall deem it necessary or desirable that a matter be proved or established prior to taking or suffering or omitting to take any action hereunder, such matter (unless other evidence in respect thereof be herein specifically prescribed) may, in the absence of negligence or bad faith on the part of the Trustee, be deemed to be conclusively proved and established by an Officers’ Certificate delivered to the Trustee and such certificate, in the absence of negligence or bad faith on the part of the Trustee, shall be full warrant to the Trustee for any action taken, suffered or omitted to be taken by it under the provisions of this Indenture upon the faith thereof.

 

SECTION 7.08 Disqualification; Conflicting Interests. If the Trustee has or shall acquire any “conflicting interest” within the meaning of Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act, the Trustee and the Company shall in all respects comply with the provisions of Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

SECTION 7.09 Corporate Trustee Required; Eligibility. There shall at all times be a Trustee with respect to the Securities issued hereunder which shall at all times be a corporation organized and doing business under the laws of the United States of America or any State or Territory thereof or of the District of Columbia, or a corporation or other Person permitted to act as trustee by the Commission, authorized under such laws to exercise corporate trust powers, having a combined capital and surplus of at least 50 million U.S. dollars ($50,000,000), and subject to supervision or examination by Federal, State, Territorial, or District of Columbia authority. If such corporation publishes reports of condition at least annually, pursuant to law or to the requirements of the aforesaid supervising or examining authority, then for the purposes of this Section, the combined capital and surplus of such corporation shall be deemed to be its combined capital and surplus as set forth in its most recent report of condition so published. The Company may not, nor may any Person directly or indirectly controlling, controlled by, or under common control with the Company, serve as Trustee. In case at any time the Trustee shall cease to be eligible in accordance with the provisions of this Section, the Trustee shall resign immediately in the manner and with the effect specified in Section 7.10.

 

SECTION 7.10 Resignation and Removal; Appointment of Successor.

 

(a) The Trustee or any successor hereafter appointed, may at any time resign with respect to the Securities of one or more series by giving written notice thereof to the Company and by transmitting notice of resignation by mail, first class postage prepaid, to the Securityholders of such series, as their names and addresses appear upon the Security Register. Upon receiving such notice of resignation, the Company shall promptly appoint a successor trustee with respect to Securities of such series by written instrument, in duplicate, executed by order of the Board of Directors, one copy of which instrument shall be delivered to the resigning Trustee and one copy to the successor trustee. If no successor trustee shall have been so appointed and have accepted appointment within 30 days after the mailing of such notice of resignation, the resigning Trustee may petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the appointment of a successor trustee with respect to Securities of such series, or any Securityholder of that series who has been a bona fide holder of a Security or Securities for at least six months may on behalf of himself and all others similarly situated, petition any such court for the appointment of a successor trustee. Such court may thereupon after such notice, if any, as it may deem proper and prescribe, appoint a successor trustee.

 

(b) In case at any time any one of the following shall occur:

 

(1) the Trustee shall fail to comply with the provisions of Section 7.08 after written request therefor by the Company or by any Securityholder who has been a bona fide holder of a Security or Securities for at least six months; or

 

(2) the Trustee shall cease to be eligible in accordance with the provisions of Section 7.09 and shall fail to resign after written request therefor by the Company or by any such Securityholder; or

 

(3) the Trustee shall become incapable of acting, or shall be adjudged a bankrupt or insolvent, or commence a voluntary bankruptcy proceeding, or a receiver of the Trustee or of its property shall be appointed or consented to, or any public officer shall take charge or control of the Trustee or of its property or affairs for the purpose of rehabilitation, conservation or liquidation, then, in any such case, the Company may remove the Trustee with respect to all Securities and appoint a successor trustee by written instrument, in duplicate, executed by order of the Board of Directors, one copy of which instrument shall be delivered to the Trustee so removed and one copy to the successor trustee, or, unless the Trustee’s duty to resign is stayed as provided herein, any Securityholder who has been a bona fide holder of a Security or Securities for at least six months may, on behalf of that holder and all others similarly situated, petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the removal of the Trustee and the appointment of a successor trustee. Such court may thereupon after such notice, if any, as it may deem proper and prescribe, remove the Trustee and appoint a successor trustee.

 

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(c) The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding may at any time remove the Trustee with respect to such series by so notifying the Trustee and the Company and may appoint a successor Trustee for such series with the consent of the Company.

 

(d) Any resignation or removal of the Trustee and appointment of a successor trustee with respect to the Securities of a series pursuant to any of the provisions of this Section shall become effective upon acceptance of appointment by the successor trustee as provided in Section 7.11.

 

(e) Any successor trustee appointed pursuant to this Section may be appointed with respect to the Securities of one or more series or all of such series, and at any time there shall be only one Trustee with respect to the Securities of any particular series.

 

SECTION 7.11 Acceptance of Appointment By Successor.

 

(a) In case of the appointment hereunder of a successor trustee with respect to all Securities, every such successor trustee so appointed shall execute, acknowledge and deliver to the Company and to the retiring Trustee an instrument accepting such appointment, and thereupon the resignation or removal of the retiring Trustee shall become effective and such successor trustee, without any further act, deed or conveyance, shall become vested with all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee; but, on the request of the Company or the successor trustee, such retiring Trustee shall, upon payment of its charges, execute and deliver an instrument transferring to such successor trustee all the rights, powers, and trusts of the retiring Trustee and shall duly assign, transfer and deliver to such successor trustee all property and money held by such retiring Trustee hereunder.

 

(b) In case of the appointment hereunder of a successor trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more (but not all) series, the Company, the retiring Trustee and each successor trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more series shall execute and deliver an indenture supplemental hereto wherein each successor trustee shall accept such appointment and which (1) shall contain such provisions as shall be necessary or desirable to transfer and confirm to, and to vest in, each successor trustee all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor trustee relates, (2) shall contain such provisions as shall be deemed necessary or desirable to confirm that all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee with respect to the Securities of that or those series as to which the retiring Trustee is not retiring shall continue to be vested in the retiring Trustee, and (3) shall add to or change any of the provisions of this Indenture as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts hereunder by more than one Trustee, it being understood that nothing herein or in such supplemental indenture shall constitute such Trustees co-trustees of the same trust, that each such Trustee shall be trustee of a trust or trusts hereunder separate and apart from any trust or trusts hereunder administered by any other such Trustee and that no Trustee shall be responsible for any act or failure to act on the part of any other Trustee hereunder; and upon the execution and delivery of such supplemental indenture the resignation or removal of the retiring Trustee shall become effective to the extent provided therein, such retiring Trustee shall with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor trustee relates have no further responsibility for the exercise of rights and powers or for the performance of the duties and obligations vested in the Trustee under this Indenture, and each such successor trustee, without any further act, deed or conveyance, shall become vested with all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor trustee relates; but, on request of the Company or any successor trustee, such retiring Trustee shall duly assign, transfer and deliver to such successor trustee, to the extent contemplated by such supplemental indenture, the property and money held by such retiring Trustee hereunder with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor trustee relates.

 

(c) Upon request of any such successor trustee, the Company shall execute any and all instruments for more fully and certainly vesting in and confirming to such successor trustee all such rights, powers and trusts referred to in paragraph (a) or (b) of this Section, as the case may be.

 

(d) No successor trustee shall accept its appointment unless at the time of such acceptance such successor trustee shall be qualified and eligible under this Article.

 

(e) Upon acceptance of appointment by a successor trustee as provided in this Section, the Company shall transmit notice of the succession of such trustee hereunder by mail, first class postage prepaid, to the Securityholders, as their names and addresses appear upon the Security Register. If the Company fails to transmit such notice within ten days after acceptance of appointment by the successor trustee, the successor trustee shall cause such notice to be transmitted at the expense of the Company.

 

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SECTION 7.12 Merger, Conversion, Consolidation or Succession to Business. Any corporation into which the Trustee may be merged or converted or with which it may be consolidated, or any corporation resulting from any merger, conversion or consolidation to which the Trustee shall be a party, or any corporation succeeding to the corporate trust business of the Trustee, shall be the successor of the Trustee hereunder, provided that such corporation shall be qualified under the provisions of Section 7.08 and eligible under the provisions of Section 7.09, without the execution or filing of any paper or any further act on the part of any of the parties hereto, anything herein to the contrary notwithstanding. In case any Securities shall have been authenticated, but not delivered, by the Trustee then in office, any successor by merger, conversion or consolidation to such authenticating Trustee may adopt such authentication and deliver the Securities so authenticated with the same effect as if such successor Trustee had itself authenticated such Securities.

 

SECTION 7.13 Preferential Collection of Claims Against the Company. The Trustee shall comply with Section 311(a) of the Trust Indenture Act, excluding any creditor relationship described in Section 311(b) of the Trust Indenture Act. A Trustee who has resigned or been removed shall be subject to Section 311(a) of the Trust Indenture Act to the extent included therein.

 

ARTICLE VIII 

CONCERNING THE SECURITYHOLDERS

 

SECTION 8.01 Evidence of Action by Securityholders. Whenever in this Indenture it is provided that the holders of a majority or specified percentage in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of a particular series may take any action (including the making of any demand or request, the giving of any notice, consent or waiver or the taking of any other action), the fact that at the time of taking any such action the holders of such majority or specified percentage of that series have joined therein may be evidenced by any instrument or any number of instruments of similar tenor executed by such holders of Securities of that series in Person or by agent or proxy appointed in writing.

 

If the Company shall solicit from the Securityholders of any series any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action, the Company may, at its option, as evidenced by an Officers’ Certificate, fix in advance a record date for such series for the determination of Securityholders entitled to give such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action, but the Company shall have no obligation to do so. If such a record date is fixed, such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action may be given before or after the record date, but only the Securityholders of record at the close of business on the record date shall be deemed to be Securityholders for the purposes of determining whether Securityholders of the requisite proportion of Outstanding Securities of that series have authorized or agreed or consented to such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action, and for that purpose the Outstanding Securities of that series shall be computed as of the record date; provided, however, that no such authorization, agreement or consent by such Securityholders on the record date shall be deemed effective unless it shall become effective pursuant to the provisions of this Indenture not later than six months after the record date.

 

SECTION 8.02 Proof of Execution by Securityholders. Subject to the provisions of Section 7.01, proof of the execution of any instrument by a Securityholder (such proof will not require notarization) or his agent or proxy and proof of the holding by any Person of any of the Securities shall be sufficient if made in the following manner:

 

(a) The fact and date of the execution by any such Person of any instrument may be proved in any reasonable manner acceptable to the Trustee.

 

(b) The ownership of Securities shall be proved by the Security Register of such Securities or by a certificate of the Security Registrar thereof.

 

(c) The Trustee may require such additional proof of any matter referred to in this Section as it shall deem necessary.

 

SECTION 8.03 Who May be Deemed Owners. Prior to the due presentment for registration of transfer of any Security, the Company, the Trustee, any paying agent and any Security Registrar may deem and treat the Person in whose name such Security shall be registered upon the books of the Company as the absolute owner of such Security (whether or not such Security shall be overdue and notwithstanding any notice of ownership or writing thereon made by anyone other than the Security Registrar) for the purpose of receiving payment of or on account of the principal of, premium, if any, and (subject to Section 2.03) interest on such Security and for all other purposes; and neither the Company nor the Trustee nor any paying agent nor any Security Registrar shall be affected by any notice to the contrary.

 

SECTION 8.04 Certain Securities Owned by Company Disregarded. In determining whether the holders of the requisite aggregate principal amount of Securities of a particular series have concurred in any direction, consent of waiver under this Indenture, the Securities of that series that are owned by the Company or any other obligor on the Securities of that series or by any Person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under common control with the Company or any other obligor on the Securities of that series shall be disregarded and deemed not to be Outstanding for the purpose of any such determination, except that for the purpose of determining whether the Trustee shall be protected in relying on any such direction, consent or waiver, only Securities of such series that the Trustee actually knows are so owned shall be so disregarded. The Securities so owned that have been pledged in good faith may be regarded as Outstanding for the purposes of this Section, if the pledgee shall establish to the satisfaction of the Trustee the pledgee’s right so to act with respect to such Securities and that the pledgee is not a Person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under direct or indirect common control with the Company or any such other obligor. In case of a dispute as to such right, any decision by the Trustee taken upon the advice of counsel shall be full protection to the Trustee.

 

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SECTION 8.05 Actions Binding on Future Securityholders. At any time prior to (but not after) the evidencing to the Trustee, as provided in Section 8.01, of the taking of any action by the holders of the majority or percentage in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of a particular series specified in this Indenture in connection with such action, any holder of a Security of that series that is shown by the evidence to be included in the Securities the holders of which have consented to such action may, by filing written notice with the Trustee, and upon proof of holding as provided in Section 8.02, revoke such action so far as concerns such Security. Except as aforesaid any such action taken by the holder of any Security shall be conclusive and binding upon such holder and upon all future holders and owners of such Security, and of any Security issued in exchange therefor, on registration of transfer thereof or in place thereof, irrespective of whether or not any notation in regard thereto is made upon such Security. Any action taken by the holders of the majority or percentage in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of a particular series specified in this Indenture in connection with such action shall be conclusively binding upon the Company, the Trustee and the holders of all the Securities of that series.

 

SECTION 8.06 Purposes for Which Meetings May Be Called. A meeting of holders of any series of Securities may be called at any time and from time to time pursuant to this Article to make, give or take any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action provided by this Indenture to be made, given or taken by holders of such series of Securities.

 

Notwithstanding anything contained in this Article VIII, the Trustee may, during the pendency of a Default or an Event of Default, call a meeting of holders of any series of Securities in accordance with its standard practices.

 

(a) The Trustee may at any time call a meeting of holders of any series of Securities for any purpose specified in Section 8.06 hereof, to be held at such time and at such place in The City of New York or Boston, Massachusetts. Notice of every meeting of holders of any series of Securities, setting forth the time and the place of such meeting, in general terms the action proposed to be taken at such meeting and the percentage of the principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of such series which shall constitute a quorum at such meeting, shall be given, in the manner provided in Section 13.04 hereof, not less than 21 nor more than 180 days prior to the date fixed for the meeting to holders of Outstanding Securities of such series.

 

(b) In case at any time the Company, pursuant to a Board Resolution, or the holders of at least 10% in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of any series shall have requested the Trustee to call a meeting of the holders of Securities of such series for any purpose specified in Section 8.06 hereof, by written request setting forth in reasonable detail the action proposed to be taken at the meeting, and the Trustee shall not have made the first publication of the notice of such meeting within 21 days after receipt of such request or shall not thereafter proceed to cause the meeting to be held as provided herein, then the Company or the holders of Securities of such series in the amount specified, as the case may be, may determine the time and the place in The City of New York or Boston, Massachusetts for such meeting and may call such meeting for such purposes by giving notice thereof as provided in paragraph (a) of this Section.

 

SECTION 8.08 Persons Entitled To Vote at Meetings.

 

To be entitled to vote at any meeting of holders of Securities of a given series, a Person shall be (a) a holder of one or more Outstanding Securities of such series or (b) a Person appointed by an instrument in writing as proxy for a holder or holders of one or more Outstanding Securities of such series by such holder or holders. The only Persons who shall be entitled to be present or to speak at any meeting of holders shall be the Persons entitled to vote at such meeting and their counsel, any representatives of the Trustee and its counsel and any representatives of the Company and its counsel.

 

SECTION 8.09 Quorum; Action. The Persons entitled to vote a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of a given series shall constitute a quorum with respect to a meeting of holders of Outstanding Securities of such series. In the absence of a quorum within 30 minutes of the time appointed for any such meeting, the meeting shall, if convened at the request of holders of Securities of such series, be dissolved. In any other case, the meeting may be adjourned for a period of not less than 10 days as determined by the chairman of the meeting prior to the adjournment of such meeting. In the absence of a quorum at any such adjourned meeting, such adjourned meeting may be further adjourned for a period of not less than 10 days as determined by the chairman of the meeting prior to the adjournment of such adjourned meeting. Notice of the reconvening of any adjourned meeting shall be given as provided in Section 8.07(a) hereof, except that such notice need be given only once and not less than five days prior to the date on which the meeting is scheduled to be reconvened.

 

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At a meeting or an adjourned meeting duly reconvened and at which a quorum is present as aforesaid, any resolution and all matters (except as limited by the proviso to the first paragraph of Section 9.02 hereof) shall be effectively passed and decided if passed or decided by the Persons entitled to vote not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of Outstanding Securities of a series represented and voting at such meeting with respect to a meeting of holders of Outstanding Securities of such series.

 

Any resolution passed or decisions taken at any meeting of holders of Securities duly held in accordance with this Section shall be binding on all the holders of Securities of such series, whether or not present or represented at the meeting.

 

SECTION 8.10 Determination of Voting Rights; Conduct and Adjournment of Meetings.

 

(a) Notwithstanding any other provisions of this Indenture, the Trustee may make such reasonable regulations as it may deem advisable for any meeting of holders of Securities in regard to proof of the holding of Securities and of the appointment of proxies and in regard to the appointment and duties of inspectors of votes, the submission and examination of proxies, certificates and other evidence of the right to vote, and such other matters concerning the conduct of the meeting as it shall deem appropriate.

 

(b) The Trustee shall, by an instrument in writing, appoint a temporary chairman (which may be the Trustee) of the meeting, unless the meeting shall have been called by the Company or by holders of Securities of a given series as provided in Section 8.07(b) hereof, in which case the Company or the holders of Securities of such series calling the meeting, as the case may be, shall in like manner appoint a temporary chairman. A permanent chairman and a permanent secretary of the meeting shall be elected by vote of the Persons entitled to vote a majority in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of such series represented at the meeting.

 

(c) At any meeting, each holder of a Security of the series in respect of which such meeting is being held or proxy shall be entitled to one vote for each $1,000 principal amount of Securities of such series held or represented by him; provided, however, that no vote shall be cast or counted at any meeting in respect of any Security of such series challenged as not Outstanding and ruled by the chairman of the meeting to be not Outstanding. The chairman of the meeting shall have no right to vote, except as a holder of a Security of such series or proxy.

 

(d) Any meeting of holders of Securities duly called pursuant to Section 8.07 hereof at which a quorum is present may be adjourned from time to time by Persons entitled to vote a majority in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of the series in respect of which such meeting is being held represented at the meeting, and the meeting may be held as so adjourned without further notice.

 

SECTION 8.11 Counting Votes and Recording Action of Meetings. The vote upon any resolution submitted to any meeting of holders of Securities of a given series shall be by written ballots on which shall be subscribed the signatures of the holders of Securities of such series or of their representatives by proxy and the principal amounts and serial numbers of the Outstanding Securities of such series held or represented by them. The permanent chairman of the meeting shall appoint two inspectors of votes who shall count all votes cast at the meeting for or against any resolution and who shall make and file with the secretary of the meeting their verified written reports in duplicate of all votes cast at the meeting. A record, at least in duplicate, of the proceedings of each meeting of holders of Securities of such series shall be prepared by the secretary of the meeting and there shall be attached to said record the original reports of the inspectors of votes on any vote by ballot taken thereat and affidavits by one or more Persons having knowledge of the facts setting forth a copy of the notice of the meeting and showing that said notice was given as provided in Section 8.07 hereof and, if applicable, Section 8.09 hereof. Each copy shall be signed and verified by the affidavits of the permanent chairman and secretary of the meeting and one such copy shall be delivered to the Company and another to the Trustee to be preserved by the Trustee, the latter to have attached thereto the ballots voted at the meeting. Any record so signed and verified shall be conclusive evidence of the matters therein stated.

 

ARTICLE IX 

SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES

 

SECTION 9.01 Supplemental Indentures Without the Consent of Securityholders. In addition to any supplemental indenture otherwise authorized by this Indenture, the Company and the Trustee may from time to time and at any time enter into an indenture or indentures supplemental hereto (which shall conform to the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act as then in effect), without the consent of the Securityholders, for one or more of the following purposes:

 

(a) cure any ambiguity, correct or supplement any provision herein which may be inconsistent with any other provision herein or which is otherwise defective, or make any other provisions with respect to matters or questions arising under this Indenture which the Company and the Trustee may deem necessary or desirable and which shall not be inconsistent with the provisions of this Indenture;

 

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(b) to comply with Article X;

 

(c) to provide for uncertificated Securities in addition to or in place of certificated Securities;

 

(d) to add to the covenants of the Company for the benefit of the holders of all or any Series of Securities (and if such covenants are to be for the benefit of less than all series of Securities, stating that such covenants are expressly being included solely for the benefit of such series) or to surrender any right or power herein conferred upon the Company;

 

(e) to add to, delete from, or revise the conditions, limitations, and restrictions on the authorized amount, terms, or purposes of issue, authentication, and delivery of Securities, as herein set forth;

 

(f) to make any change that does not adversely affect the rights of any Securityholder in any material respect;

 

(g) to provide for the issuance of and establish the form and terms and conditions of the Securities of any series as provided in Section 2.01, to establish the form of any certifications required to be furnished pursuant to the terms of this Indenture or any series of Securities, or to add to the rights of the holders of any series of Securities; or

 

(h) comply with the requirements of the Commission in order to effect or maintain the qualification of this Indenture under the Trust Indenture Act.

 

The Trustee is hereby authorized to join with the Company in the execution of any such supplemental indenture, and to make any further appropriate agreements and stipulations that may be therein contained, but the Trustee shall not be obligated to enter into any such supplemental indenture that affects the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under this Indenture or otherwise.

 

Any supplemental indenture authorized by the provisions of this Section may be executed by the Company and the Trustee without the consent of the holders of any of the Securities at the time Outstanding, notwithstanding any of the provisions of Section 9.02.

 

SECTION 9.02 Supplemental Indentures With Consent of Securityholders. With the written consent of the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of any series or by action at a meeting of holders of the Securities of such series in accordance with Section 8.09, by the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such series then Outstanding represented at such meeting, the Company, when authorized by Board Resolutions, and the Trustee may from time to time and at any time enter into an indenture or indentures supplemental hereto (which shall conform to the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act as then in effect) for the purpose of adding any provisions to or changing in any manner or eliminating any of the provisions of this Indenture or of any supplemental indenture or of modifying in any manner not covered by Section 9.01 the rights of the holders of the Securities of such series under this Indenture; provided, however, that no such supplemental indenture shall, without the consent of the holders of each Security then Outstanding and affected thereby, (i) extend the fixed maturity of any Securities of any series, or reduce the principal amount thereof, or reduce the rate or extend the time of payment of interest thereon, or reduce any premium payable upon the redemption thereof, (ii) reduce the aforesaid percentage of Securities, the holders of which are required to consent to any such supplemental indenture, or any consent or waiver, (iii) reduce the principal amount of discount securities payable upon acceleration of the maturity of any Securities of any series or (iv) make the principal of or premium or interest on any Security of a series payable in currency or currency units other than that stated in the Securities of such series.

 

It shall not be necessary for the consent of the Securityholders of any series affected thereby under this Section to approve the particular form of any proposed supplemental indenture, but it shall be sufficient if such consent shall approve the substance thereof.

 

SECTION 9.03 Effect of Supplemental Indentures. Upon the execution of any supplemental indenture pursuant to the provisions of this Article or of Section 10.01, this Indenture shall, with respect to such series, be and be deemed to be modified and amended in accordance therewith and the respective rights, limitations of rights, obligations, duties and immunities under this Indenture of the Trustee, the Company and the holders of Securities of the series affected thereby shall thereafter be determined, exercised and enforced hereunder subject in all respects to such modifications and amendments, and all the terms and conditions of any such supplemental indenture shall be and be deemed to be part of the terms and conditions of this Indenture for any and all purposes.

 

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SECTION 9.04 Securities Affected by Supplemental Indentures. Securities of any series affected by a supplemental indenture, authenticated and delivered after the execution of such supplemental indenture pursuant to the provisions of this Article or of Section 10.01, may bear a notation in form approved by the Company, provided such form meets the requirements of any exchange upon which such series may be listed, as to any matter provided for in such supplemental indenture. If the Company shall so determine, new Securities of that series so modified as to conform, in the opinion of the Board of Directors of the Company, to any modification of this Indenture contained in any such supplemental indenture may be prepared by the Company, authenticated by the Trustee and delivered in exchange for the Securities of that series then Outstanding.

 

SECTION 9.05 Execution of Supplemental Indentures. Upon the request of the Company, accompanied by its Board Resolutions authorizing the execution of any such supplemental indenture, and upon the filing with the Trustee of evidence of the consent of Securityholders required to consent thereto as aforesaid, the Trustee shall join with the Company in the execution of such supplemental indenture unless such supplemental indenture affects the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under this Indenture or otherwise, in which case the Trustee may in its discretion but shall not be obligated to enter into such supplemental indenture. The Trustee, subject to the provisions of Section 7.01, may receive an Opinion of Counsel as conclusive evidence that any supplemental indenture executed pursuant to this Article is authorized or permitted by, and conforms to, the terms of this Article and that it is proper for the Trustee under the provisions of this Article to join in the execution thereof; provided, however, that such Opinion of Counsel need not be provided in connection with the execution of a supplemental indenture that establishes the terms of a series of Securities pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof.

 

Promptly after the execution by the Company and the Trustee of any supplemental indenture pursuant to the provisions of this Section, the Trustee shall transmit by mail, first class postage prepaid, a notice, setting forth in general terms the substance of such supplemental indenture, to the Securityholders of all series affected thereby as their names and addresses appear upon the Security Register. Any failure of the Trustee to mail such notice, or any defect therein, shall not, however, in any way impair or affect the validity of any such supplemental indenture.

 

ARTICLE X 

SUCCESSOR ENTITY

 

SECTION 10.01 Company May Consolidate, Etc. Nothing contained in this Indenture or in any of the Securities shall prevent any consolidation or merger of the Company with or into any other Person (whether or not affiliated with the Company) or successive consolidations or mergers in which the Company or its successor or successors shall be a party or parties, or shall prevent any sale, conveyance, transfer or other disposition of the property of the Company or its successor or successors as an entirety, or substantially as an entirety, to any other corporation (whether or not affiliated with the Company or its successor or successors) authorized to acquire and operate the same; provided, however, the Company hereby covenants and agrees that, upon any such consolidation or merger (in each case, if the Company is not the survivor of such transaction), sale, conveyance, transfer or other disposition, the due and punctual payment of the principal of (premium, if any) and interest on all of the Securities of all series in accordance with the terms of each series, according to their tenor and the due and punctual performance and observance of all the covenants and conditions of this Indenture with respect to each series or established with respect to such series pursuant to Section 2.01 to be kept or performed by the Company shall be expressly assumed, by supplemental indenture (which shall conform to the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act, as then in effect) satisfactory in form to the Trustee executed and delivered to the Trustee by the entity formed by such consolidation, or into which the Company shall have been merged, or by the entity which shall have acquired such property.

 

SECTION 10.02 Successor Entity Substituted.

 

(a) In case of any such consolidation, merger, sale, conveyance, transfer or other disposition and upon the assumption by the successor entity by supplemental indenture, executed and delivered to the Trustee and satisfactory in form to the Trustee, of the due and punctual payment of the principal of, premium, if any, and interest on all of the Securities of all series Outstanding and the due and punctual performance of all of the covenants and conditions of this Indenture or established with respect to each series of the Securities pursuant to Section 2.01 to be performed by the Company with respect to each series, such successor entity shall succeed to and be substituted for the Company with the same effect as if it had been named as the Company herein, and thereupon the predecessor corporation shall be relieved of all obligations and covenants under this Indenture and the Securities.

 

(b) In case of any such consolidation, merger, sale, conveyance, transfer or other disposition such changes in phraseology and form (but not in substance) may be made in the Securities thereafter to be issued as may be appropriate.

 

(c) Nothing contained in this Article shall require any action by the Company in the case of a consolidation or merger of any Person into the Company where the Company is the survivor of such transaction, or the acquisition by the Company, by purchase or otherwise, of all or any part of the property of any other Person (whether or not affiliated with the Company).

 

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SECTION 10.03 Evidence of Consolidation, Etc. to Trustee. The Trustee, subject to the provisions of Section 7.01, may receive an Opinion of Counsel as conclusive evidence that any such consolidation, merger, sale, conveyance, transfer or other disposition, and any such assumption, comply with the provisions of this Article.

 

ARTICLE XI 

SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE

 

SECTION 11.01 Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture. If at any time: (a) the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee for cancellation all Securities of a series theretofore authenticated (other than any Securities that shall have been destroyed, lost or stolen and that shall have been replaced or paid as provided in Section 2.07) and Securities for whose payment money or Governmental Obligations have theretofore been deposited in trust or segregated and held in trust by the Company (and thereupon repaid to the Company or discharged from such trust, as provided in Section 11.05); or (b) all such Securities of a particular series not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation shall have become due and payable, or are by their terms to become due and payable within one year or are to be called for redemption within one year under arrangements satisfactory to the Trustee for the giving of notice of redemption, and the Company shall deposit or cause to be deposited with the Trustee as trust funds the entire amount in moneys or Governmental Obligations sufficient or a combination thereof, sufficient (assuming that no tax liability will be imposed on the Trustee) in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants expressed in a written certification thereof delivered to the Trustee, to pay at maturity or upon redemption all Securities of that series not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, including principal (and premium, if any) and interest due or to become due to such date of maturity or date fixed for redemption, as the case may be, and if the Company shall also pay or cause to be paid all other sums payable hereunder with respect to such series by the Company then this Indenture shall thereupon cease to be of further effect with respect to such series except for the provisions of Sections 2.03, 2.05, 2.07, 4.01, 4.02, 4.03 and 7.10, that shall survive until the date of maturity or redemption date, as the case may be, and Sections 7.06 and 11.05, that shall survive to such date and thereafter, and the Trustee, on demand of the Company and at the cost and expense of the Company shall execute proper instruments acknowledging satisfaction of and discharging this Indenture with respect to such series.

 

SECTION 11.02 Discharge of Obligations. If at any time all such Securities of a particular series not heretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation or that have not become due and payable as described in Section 11.01 shall have been paid by the Company by depositing irrevocably with the Trustee as trust funds moneys or an amount of Governmental Obligations sufficient to pay at maturity or upon redemption all such Securities of that series not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, including principal (and premium, if any) and interest due or to become due to such date of maturity or date fixed for redemption, as the case may be, and if the Company shall also pay or cause to be paid all other sums payable hereunder by the Company with respect to such series, then after the date such moneys or Governmental Obligations, as the case may be, are deposited with the Trustee the obligations of the Company under this Indenture with respect to such series shall cease to be of further effect except for the provisions of Sections 2.03, 2.05, 2.07, 4,01, 4.02, 4.03, 7.06, 7.10 and 11.05 hereof that shall survive until such Securities shall mature and be paid thereafter, Sections 7.06 and 11.05 shall survive.

 

SECTION 11.03 Deposited Moneys to be Held in Trust. Subject to Section 11.05, all moneys or Governmental Obligations deposited with the Trustee pursuant to Sections 11.01 or 11.02 shall be held in trust and shall be available for payment as due, either directly or through any paying agent (including the Company acting as its own paying agent), to the holders of the particular series of Securities for the payment or redemption of which such moneys or Governmental Obligations have been deposited with the Trustee.

 

SECTION 11.04 Payment of Moneys Held by Paying Agents. In connection with the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture all moneys or Governmental Obligations then held by any paying agent under the provisions of this Indenture shall, upon demand of the Company, be paid to the Trustee and thereupon such paying agent shall be released from all further liability with respect to such moneys or Governmental Obligations.

 

SECTION 11.05 Repayment to Company. Any moneys or Governmental Obligations deposited with any paying agent or the Trustee, or then held by the Company, in trust for payment of principal of or premium or interest on the Securities of a particular series that are not applied but remain unclaimed by the holders of such Securities for two years after the date upon which the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on such Securities shall have respectively become due and payable, shall be repaid to the Company or (if then held by the Company) shall be discharged from such trust in each case, promptly after the end of any such two-year period or, at the request of the Company, on a later date specified by the Company; and thereupon the paying agent and the Trustee shall be released from all further liability with respect to such moneys or Governmental Obligations, and the holder of any of the Securities entitled to receive such payment shall thereafter, as an unsecured general creditor, look only to the Company for the payment thereof.

 

25 

 

 

ARTICLE XII 

IMMUNITY OF INCORPORATORS, SHAREHOLDERS, OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS

 

SECTION 12.01 No Recourse. No recourse under or upon any obligation, covenant or agreement of this Indenture, or of any Security, or for any claim based thereon or otherwise in respect thereof, shall be had against any incorporator, shareholder, officer or director, past, present or future as such, of the Company or of any predecessor or successor corporation, either directly or through the Company or any such predecessor or successor corporation, whether by virtue of any constitution, statute or rule of law, or by the enforcement of any assessment or penalty or otherwise; it being expressly understood that this Indenture and the obligations issued hereunder are solely corporate obligations, and that no such personal liability whatever shall attach to, or is or shall be incurred by, the incorporators, shareholders, officers or directors as such, of the Company or of any predecessor or successor corporation, or any of them, because of the creation of the indebtedness hereby authorized, or under or by reason of the obligations, covenants or agreements contained in this Indenture or in any of the Securities or implied therefrom; and that any and all such personal liability of every name and nature, either at common law or in equity or by constitution or statute, of, and any and all such rights and claims against, every such incorporator, shareholders, officer or director as such, because of the creation of the indebtedness hereby authorized, or under or by reason of the obligations, covenants or agreements contained in this Indenture or in any of the Securities or implied therefrom, are hereby expressly waived and released as a condition of, and as a consideration for, the execution of this Indenture and the issuance of such Securities.

 

ARTICLE XIII 

MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

 

SECTION 13.01 Effect on Successors and Assigns. All the covenants, stipulations, promises and agreements in this Indenture contained by or on behalf of the Company shall bind its successors and assigns, whether so expressed or not.

 

SECTION 13.02 Actions by Successor. Any act or proceeding by any provision of this Indenture authorized or required to be done or performed by any board, committee or officer of the Company shall and may be done and performed with like force and effect by the corresponding board, committee or officer of any corporation that shall at the time be the lawful successor of the Company.

 

SECTION 13.03 Surrender of Company Powers. The Company by instrument in writing executed by authority of its Board of Directors and delivered to the Trustee may surrender any of the powers reserved to the Company, and thereupon such power so surrendered shall terminate both as to the Company and as to any successor corporation.

 

SECTION 13.04 Notices. Except as otherwise expressly provided herein any notice or demand that by any provision of this Indenture is required or permitted to be given or served by the Trustee or by the holders of Securities to or on the Company may be given or served by being deposited first class postage prepaid in a post-office letterbox addressed (until another address is filed in writing by the Company with the Trustee), as follows: TMC the metals company Inc., Attn: [ ], 595 Howe Street, 10th Floor, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V6C 2T5. Any notice, election, request or demand by the Company or any Securityholder to or upon the Trustee shall be deemed to have been sufficiently given or made, for all purposes, if given or made in writing at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee. Any notice or communication to a holder shall be mailed by first-class mail to his address shown on the Security Register kept by the Security Registrar.

 

Failure to mail a notice or communication to a holder or any defect in such notice or communication shall not affect its sufficiency with respect to other holders. If a notice or communication is mailed or sent in the manner provided above within the time prescribed, it is duly given as of the date it is mailed, whether or not the addressee receives it, except that notice to the Trustee or the Company shall only be effective upon receipt thereof by the Trustee or the Company, respectively. If the Company mails a notice or communication to holders of Securities, it shall mail a copy to the Trustee at the same time.

 

SECTION 13.05 Governing Law. This Indenture and each Security shall be deemed to be a contract made under the internal laws of the State of New York, and for all purposes shall be construed in accordance with the laws of said State.

 

26 

 

 

SECTION 13.06 Treatment of Securities as Debt. It is intended that the Securities will be treated as indebtedness and not as equity for federal income tax purposes. The provisions of this Indenture shall be interpreted to further this intention.

 

SECTION 13.07 Compliance Certificates and Opinions.

 

(a) Upon any application or demand by the Company to the Trustee to take any action under any of the provisions of this Indenture, the Company, shall furnish to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate stating that all conditions precedent provided for in this Indenture relating to the proposed action have been complied with and an Opinion of Counsel stating that in the opinion of such counsel all such conditions precedent have been complied with, except that in the case of any such application or demand as to which the furnishing of such documents is specifically required by any provision of this Indenture relating to such particular application or demand, no additional certificate or opinion need be furnished.

 

(b) Each certificate or opinion provided for in this Indenture and delivered to the Trustee with respect to compliance with a condition or covenant in this Indenture shall include (1) a statement that the Person making such certificate or opinion has read such covenant or condition; (2) a brief statement as to the nature and scope of the examination or investigation upon which the statements or opinions contained in such certificate or opinion are based; (3) a statement that, in the opinion of such Person, he has made such examination or investigation as is necessary to enable him to express an informed opinion as to whether or not such covenant or condition has been complied with; and (4) a statement as to whether or not, in the opinion of such Person, such condition or covenant has been complied with.

 

SECTION 13.08 Payments on Business Days. Except as provided pursuant to Section 2.01 pursuant to a Board Resolution, and as set forth in an Officers’ Certificate, or established in one or more indentures supplemental to this Indenture, in any case where the date of maturity of interest or principal of any Security or the date of redemption of any Security shall not be a Business Day, then payment of interest or principal (and premium, if any) may be made on the next succeeding Business Day with the same force and effect as if made on the nominal date of maturity or redemption, and no interest shall accrue for the period after such nominal date.

 

SECTION 13.09 Conflict with Trust Indenture Act. If and to the extent that any provision of this Indenture limits, qualifies or conflicts with the duties imposed by Sections 310 to 317, inclusive, of the Trust Indenture Act, such imposed duties shall control.

 

SECTION 13.10 Counterparts. This Indenture may be executed in any number of counterparts, each of which shall be an original, but such counterparts shall together constitute but one and the same instrument.

 

SECTION 13.11 Separability. In case any one or more of the provisions contained in this Indenture or in the Securities of any series shall for any reason be held to be invalid, illegal or unenforceable in any respect, such invalidity, illegality or unenforceability shall not affect any other provisions of this Indenture or of such Securities, but this Indenture and such Securities shall be construed as if such invalid or illegal or unenforceable provision had never been contained herein or therein.

 

SECTION 13.12 Assignment. The Company will have the right at all times to assign any of its rights or obligations under this Indenture to a direct or indirect wholly-owned Subsidiary of the Company, provided that, in the event of any such assignment, the Company, will remain liable for all such obligations. Subject to the foregoing, this Indenture is binding upon and inures to the benefit of the parties thereto and their respective successors and assigns. This Indenture may not otherwise be assigned by the parties thereto.

 

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties hereto have caused this Indenture to be duly executed all as of the day and year first above written.

 

  TMC THE METALS COMPANY INC.
     
  By:  
    Name:
    Title:
   
  [ ],
  As Trustee
     
  By:  
    Name:
    Title:

 

27 

 

 

Exhibit 4.8

 

TMC THE METALS COMPANY INC.

Issuer

AND

[ ]

Trustee

INDENTURE

Dated as of [ ]

Subordinated Debt Securities

 

CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE(1)

 

Section of

Trust Indenture Act

of 1939, as Amended

  Section of
Indenture
310(a).   7.09
310(b).   7.08
    7.10
310(c).   Inapplicable
311(a).   7.13(a)
311(b).   7.13(b)
311(c).   Inapplicable
312(a).   5.02(a)
312(b).   5.02(b)
312(c).   5.02(c)
313(a).   5.04(a)
313(b).   5.04(a)
313(c).   5.04(a)
    5.04(b)
313(d).   5.04(b)
314(a).   5.03
314(b).   Inapplicable
314(c).   13.06
314(d).   Inapplicable
314(e).   13.06
314(f).   Inapplicable
315(a).   7.01(a)
    7.02
315(b).   6.07
315(c).   7.01
315(d).   7.01(b)
    7.01(c)
315(e).   6.07
316(a).   6.06
    8.04
316(b).   6.04
316(c).   8.01
317(a).   6.02
317(b).   4.03
318(a).   13.08

 

(1) This Cross-Reference Table does not constitute part of the Indenture and shall not have any bearing on the interpretation of any of its terms or provisions.

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS(2)

 

    Page
ARTICLE I DEFINITIONS 1
SECTION 1.01 Definitions of Terms 1
ARTICLE II ISSUE, DESCRIPTION, TERMS, EXECUTION, REGISTRATION AND EXCHANGE OF SECURITIES 3
SECTION 2.01 Designation and Terms of Securities 3
SECTION 2.02 Form of Securities and Trustee’s Certificate 4
SECTION 2.03 Denominations: Provisions for Payment 4
SECTION 2.04 Execution and Authentications 5
SECTION 2.05 Registration of Transfer and Exchange 6
SECTION 2.06 Temporary Securities 7
SECTION 2.07 Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost or Stolen Securities 7
SECTION 2.08 Cancellation 7
SECTION 2.09 Benefits of Indenture 7
SECTION 2.10 Authenticating Agent 8
SECTION 2.11 Global Securities 8
ARTICLE III REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES AND SINKING FUND PROVISIONS 8
SECTION 3.01 Redemption 8
SECTION 3.02 Notice of Redemption 9
SECTION 3.03 Payment Upon Redemption 9
SECTION 3.04 Sinking Fund 10
SECTION 3.05 Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities 10
SECTION 3.06 Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund 10
ARTICLE IV COVENANTS 10
SECTION 4.01 Payment of Principal, Premium and Interest 10
SECTION 4.02 Maintenance of Office or Agency 10
SECTION 4.03 Paying Agents 10

 

 

 

 

SECTION 4.04 Appointment to Fill Vacancy in Office of Trustee 11

SECTION 4.05 Compliance with Consolidation Provisions 11
ARTICLE V SECURITYHOLDERS’ LISTS AND REPORTS BY THE COMPANY AND THE TRUSTEE 11
SECTION 5.01 Company to Furnish Trustee Names and Addresses of Securityholders 11
SECTION 5.02 Preservation of Information; Communications with Securityholders 11
SECTION 5.03 Reports by the Company 12
SECTION 5.04 Reports by the Trustee 12
ARTICLE VI REMEDIES OF THE TRUSTEE AND SECURITYHOLDERS ON EVENT OF DEFAULT 12
SECTION 6.01 Events of Default 12
SECTION 6.02 Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee 13
SECTION 6.03 Application of Moneys Collected 14
SECTION 6.04 Limitation on Suits 14
SECTION 6.05 Rights and Remedies Cumulative; Delay or Omission Not Waiver 15
SECTION 6.06 Control by Securityholders 15
SECTION 6.07 Undertaking to Pay Costs 15
ARTICLE VII CONCERNING THE TRUSTEE 16
SECTION 7.01 Certain Duties and Responsibilities of Trustee 16
SECTION 7.02 Certain Rights of Trustee 16
SECTION 7.03 Trustee Not Responsible for Recitals or Issuance of Securities 17
SECTION 7.04 May Hold Securities 17
SECTION 7.05 Moneys Held in Trust 17
SECTION 7.06 Compensation and Reimbursement 17
SECTION 7.07 Reliance on Officers’ Certificate 18
SECTION 7.08 Disqualification; Conflicting Interests 18
SECTION 7.09 Corporate Trustee Required; Eligibility 18
SECTION 7.10 Resignation and Removal; Appointment of Successor 18
SECTION 7.11 Acceptance of Appointment By Successor 19

 

 

 

 

SECTION 7.12 Merger, Conversion, Consolidation or Succession to Business 20
SECTION 7.13 Preferential Collection of Claims Against the Company 20
ARTICLE VIII CONCERNING THE SECURITYHOLDERS 20
SECTION 8.01 Evidence of Action by Securityholders 20
SECTION 8.02 Proof of Execution by Securityholders 20
SECTION 8.03 Who May be Deemed Owners 20
SECTION 8.04 Certain Securities Owned by Company Disregarded 21
SECTION 8.05 Actions Binding on Future Securityholders 21
SECTION 8.06 Purposes for Which Meetings May Be Called 21
SECTION 8.07 Call Notice and Place of Meetings 21
SECTION 8.08 Persons Entitled To Vote at Meetings 21
SECTION 8.09 Quorum; Action 22
SECTION 8.10 Determination of Voting Rights; Conduct and Adjournment of Meetings 22
SECTION 8.11 Counting Votes and Recording Action of Meetings 22
ARTICLE IX SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES 23
SECTION 9.01 Supplemental Indentures Without the Consent of Securityholders 23
SECTION 9.02 Supplemental Indentures With Consent of Securityholders 23
SECTION 9.03 Effect of Supplemental Indentures 23
SECTION 9.04 Securities Affected by Supplemental Indentures 24
SECTION 9.05 Execution of Supplemental Indentures 24
ARTICLE X SUCCESSOR ENTITY 24
SECTION 10.01 Company May Consolidate, Etc. 24
SECTION 10.02 Successor Entity Substituted 24
SECTION 10.03 Evidence of Consolidation, Etc. to Trustee 25
ARTICLE XI SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE 25
SECTION 11.01 Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture 25
SECTION 11.02 Discharge of Obligations 25
SECTION 11.03 Deposited Moneys to be Held in Trust 25
SECTION 11.04 Payment of Moneys Held by Paying Agents 25
SECTION 11.05 Repayment to Company 25
ARTICLE XII IMMUNITY OF INCORPORATORS, SHAREHOLDERS, OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS 26
SECTION 12.01 No Recourse 26
ARTICLE XIII MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS 26
SECTION 13.01 Effect on Successors and Assigns 26
SECTION 13.02 Actions by Successor 26
SECTION 13.03 Surrender of Company Powers 26
SECTION 13.04 Notices 26
SECTION 13.05 Governing Law 26
SECTION 13.06 Treatment of Securities as Debt 27
SECTION 13.07 Compliance Certificates and Opinions 27
SECTION 13.08 Payments on Business Days 27
SECTION 13.09 Conflict with Trust Indenture Act 27
SECTION 13.10 Counterparts 27
SECTION 13.11 Separability 27
SECTION 13.12 Assignment 27
ARTICLE XIV SUBORDINATION OF SECURITIES 27
SECTION 14.01 Subordination Terms 27